Pigs, Prawns and Power Houses: Politics in Water Resources Management

  • K. M. Jensen
  • R. B. Lange
  • J. C. Refsgaard
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


When the global water expert community joined the heads of state for the Rio+20 summit in 2012, they celebrated 20 years of promoting the concept of sustainable development, now enshrined within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Under this umbrella, a range of normative management ideals and methods have been developed and advocated. These include the holistic concepts of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Coastal Zone Management, as well as their ‘tool room’ management instruments and methods, such as environmental impact assessments and Environmental Flows. These ideals designate elaborate approaches to ‘good environmental governance’ aimed at replacing ‘bad’ and unsustainable practices. Sustainable water management is included in SDG 6 which aims to ‘ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’ (see Target 6.5 of SDG 6 states ‘By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate’.


  1. Argyris, C., and D. Schön. 1978. Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Armitage, D., F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday, eds. 2007. Adaptive Co-Management: Collaboration, Learning, Multi-level Governance. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  3. Armitage, D., M. Marschke, and R. Plummer. 2008. Adaptive Co-management and the Paradox of Learning. Global Environmental Change 18: 86–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barret, S.M. 2004. Implementation Studies: Time for a Revival? Personal Reflections on 20 Years of Implementation Studies. Public Administration 82 (2): 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biswas, A. 2004. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Reassessment. Water International 29 (2): 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. 2008. Integrated Water Resources Management: Is It Working? International Journal of Water Resources Development 24 (1): 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ———. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  9. Butterworth, J., J. Warner, P. Moriarty, S. Smits, and C. Batchelor. 2010. Finding Practical Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management. Water Alternatives 3 (1): 68–81.Google Scholar
  10. Chilika Development Authority. 2011a. Aims and Objectives. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  11. ———. 2011b. Eco-restoration. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  12. ———. 2011c. Governing Body. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  13. Chilika Development Authority and Wetlands International. 2010. Chilika Newsletter (March) V: 1–28.Google Scholar
  14. Controller and Auditor General of India. 2008. Functioning of Chilika Development Authority, Bhubaneswar. Audit Report (Civil). In Orissa for the Year 2007–2008, Chapter III: Performance Audit, 94–104.Google Scholar
  15. Das, G.S. 1993. The Report of the Fact-Finding Committee on Chilika Fisheries. Submitted to Orissa High Court 16 August 1993.Google Scholar
  16. Dujovny, E. 2009. The Deepest Cut: Political Ecology in the Dredging of a New Sea Mouth in Chilika Lake, Orissa, India. Conservation and Society 7 (3): 192–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2010. Casteing the Net: The Making of a Lagoon and the Emergence of Caste as Social Network. PhD Dissertation, Graduate School, University of Georgia.Google Scholar
  18. Dutta, K. 2011. Chilika Fishermen Set to Battle Prawn Mafia Themselves. InfoExhangeIndia. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  19. European Commission. 2000. Water Framework Directive. Directive 2000/60/EC.Google Scholar
  20. Flood, R.L., and N.R.A. Romm. 1996. Diversity Management: Triple Loop Learning. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foucault, M. 1990. The History of Sexuality. Volume 1: An Introduction. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  22. Ghosh, A.K., and A.K. Pattnaik 2005. Chilika Lagoon: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief. In ILEC (ed), Managing Lakes and Their Basins for Sustainable Use: A Report for Lake Basin Managers and Stakeholders, 115–132. Kusatsu: International Lake Environment Committee (ILEC) Foundation. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  23. Ghosh, A., A. Pattnaik, and T. Ballatore. 2006. Chilika Lagoon: Restoring Ecological Balance and Livelihoods Through Re-salinization. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management 11 (4): 239–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giddens, A. 1984. The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  25. Global Water Partnership Technical Advisory Committee. 2000. Integrated Water Resources Management, TAC Background Papers No. 4. Stockholm: Global Water Partnership.Google Scholar
  26. Government of India Planning Commission. 2008. Report on Visit to Chilika Lake, Orissa, a Wetland Included Under the National Wetland Conservation and Management Programme of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  27. Grant, R., I. Paulsen, V. Jørgensen, and A. Kyllingsbæk. 2002. Vandmiljøplan II: baggrund og udvikling. Jordbrug and Miljø 2. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser og Danmarks Jordbrugsforskning. Copenhagen: Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser Miljøministeriet.Google Scholar
  28. Habermas, J. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action: Reason and the Rationalization of Society—Volume 1. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hall, P.A., and R.C.R. Taylor. 1996. Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms. Political Studies XLIV: 936–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hirch, P. 2010. The Changing Political Dynamics of Dam Building on the Mekong. Water Alternatives 3 (2): 312–323.Google Scholar
  31. Hirji, R., and R. Davis 2009. Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans and Projects: Case Studies. World Bank Environment Department Papers, Natural Resource Management Series, No. 117.Google Scholar
  32. Hirsch, P., and K.M. Jensen. 2006. National Interests and Transboundary Water Governance in the Mekong. Sydney: Australian Mekong Resource Centre, University of Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  33. ICWE. 1992. The Dublin Statement and Report of the Conference. In International Conference on Water and the Environment: Development Issues for the 21st century, 26–31 January, Dublin.Google Scholar
  34. Lebel, L., T. Grothmann, and B. Siebenhüner. 2010. The Role of Social Learning in Adaptiveness: Insights from Water Management. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 10 (4): 333–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leeuwis, C., and R. Pyburn, eds. 2002. Wheelbarrows Full of Frogs. Assen: Koninklijke Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
  36. Lenton, L.R., and M. Muller. 2009. Integrated Water Resources Management in Practice: Better Water Management for Development. London: Earthscan for Global Water Partnership.Google Scholar
  37. Mekong River Commission. 1995. Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin 5th April 1995.Google Scholar
  38. Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. 2004. Agreement on the Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment III 2005–2015 Between the Danish Government, the Danish People’s Party and the Christian Democrats. Accessed 20 May 2017.
  39. Mishra, S., and A. Griffin. 2011. Encroachment: A Threat to Resource Sustainability in Chilika Lake, India. Applied Geography 30 (3): 448–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mohapatra, A., R. Mohanty, S. Mohanty, K. Bhatta, and N. Das. 2007. Fisheries Enhancement and Biodiversity Assessment of Fish, Prawn and Mud Crab in Chilika Lagoon Through Hydrological Intervention. Wetlands Ecology and Management 15 (3): 229–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Molle, F. 2008. Nirvana Concepts, Narratives and Policy Models: Insights from the Water Sector. Water Alternatives 1 (1): 131–156.Google Scholar
  42. Mollinga, P. 2008. Water, Politics and Development: Framing a Political Sociology of Water Resources Management. Water Alternatives 1 (1): 7–23.Google Scholar
  43. Mollinga, P., R. Meinzen-Dick, and D.J. Merrey. 2007. Politics, Plurality and Problem sheds: A Strategic Approach for Reform of Agricultural Water Resources Management. Development Policy Review 25 (6): 699–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mostert, E., C. Pahl-Wostl, Y. Rees, B. Searle, D. Tàbara, and J. Tippet 2007. Social Learning in European River-Basin management: Barriers and Fostering Mechanisms from 10 River Basins. Ecology and Society 12 (1): Art. 19.Google Scholar
  45. Nayak, P., and F. Berkes. 2010. Whose Marginalisation? Politics Around Environmental Injustices in India’s Chilika Lagoon. Local Environment 15 (6): 553–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. ———. 2011. Commonisation and Decommonisation: Understanding the Processes of Change in Chilika Lagoon. Conservation and Society 9 (2): 132–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Öjendal, J. 2000. Sharing the Good: Modes of Managing Water Resources in the Lower Mekong River Basin. PhD Dissertation, Department of Peace and Development Studies, Gothenburg University.Google Scholar
  48. Öjendal, J., and K.M. Jensen. 2011. Politics and Development of the Mekong River Basin: Transboundary Dilemmas and Participatory Ambitions. In Politics and Development in a Transboundary Watershed: The Case of the Lower Mekong Basin, ed. J. Öjendal, S. Hansson, and S. Hellberg. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  49. Öjendal, J., S. Hansson, and S. Hellberg. 2011. Politics and Development in a Transboundary Watershed. The Case of the Lower Mekong Basin. In Politics and Development in a Transboundary Watershed: The Case of the Lower Mekong Basin, ed. J. Öjendal, S. Hansson, and S. Hellberg. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. Orissa High Court. 1993. Judgement on Kholamuhana Primary Fishermen Co-operative Society and Ors., Etc. vs State of Orissa and Ors. on 23/11/1993. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  51. Pahl-Wostl, C. 2009. A Conceptual Framework for Analysing Adaptive Capacity and Multi-level Learning Processes in Resource Governance Regimes. Global Environmental Change 19 (3): 354–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pahl-Wostl, C., and J. Sendzimir. 2005. The Relationship Between IWRM and Adaptive Water Management, NeWater Working Paper No. 3. Osnabrück: Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück.Google Scholar
  53. Pahl-Wostl, C., T. Downing, P. Kabat, P. Magnuszewski, J. Meigh, M. Schlueter, J. Sendzimir, and S. Werners. 2005. Transition to Adaptive Water Management: The NeWater Project, NeWater Working Paper No. 1. Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück.Google Scholar
  54. Pahl-Wostl, C., M. Craps, A. Dewulf, E. Mostert, D. Tabara, and T. Taillieu 2007a. Social Learning and Water Resources Management. Ecology and Society 12 (2): Art. 5.Google Scholar
  55. Pahl-Wostl, C., J. Sendzimir, P. Jeffrey, J. Aerts, G. Berkamp, and K. Cross. 2007b. Managing Change Toward Adaptive Water Management Through Social Learning. Ecology and Society 12 (2): Art. 30.Google Scholar
  56. Pattanaik, S. 2006. Commercialization of Shrimp Trade, Environment and Rural Poverty: A Socio-Ecological Exploration in Coastal Orissa. Paper presented at the Workshop on Trade, Environment and Rural Poverty, Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi, Working Paper Series No. E/274/2006, 1–25.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 2008. Conservation of Environment and Protection of Marginalized Fishing Communities of Lake Chilika in Orissa, India. Journal of Human Ecology 22 (4): 1–12.Google Scholar
  58. Pattnaik, A.K. 2009. Lake Chilika—A Ramsar Site from India and Its ILBM Challenges. Paper presented at the 13th World Lake Conference at Wuhan, China. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  59. Pattnaik, A.K. and L.C. Trisal 2003. Integrated Management of Chilika Lagoon, India. Case #268 in Global Water Partnerships Toolbox. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  60. Pradhan, D., and M. Flaherty. 2008. National Initiatives, Local Effects: Trade Liberalization, Shrimp Aquaculture, and Coastal Communities in Orissa, India. Society and Natural Resources 21 (1): 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Radio Voice of Vietnam. 8 May 2011.Google Scholar
  62. Radosevich, George E. 1996. The Mekong: A New Framework for Development and Management. In Asian International Waters: From Ganges-Brahmaputra to the Mekong, ed. A.K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto. Bombay: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Ramsar Advisory Mission No. 50: India. 2001. Removal of Chilika Lake Ramsar Site, India, from the Montreux Record 9–13. December 2001. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  64. Ravenborg, H.M., and K.M. Jensen 2011. The Water Governance Challenge: The Discrepancy Between What Is and What Should Be. Paper presented at the International Conference on IWRM, Management of Water in a Changing World: Lessons Learnt and Innovative Perspectives, Dresden, Germany 12–13 October.Google Scholar
  65. Ray, A.P., and S. Ray. 2007. Chilika Lease Policy: Threat to Environment and Fishermen. In Lakes and Coastal Wetlands: Conservation, Restoration, and Management, ed. P.K. Mohanty, 399–406. New Delhi: Capital Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  66. Samal, K. 2002. Shrimp Culture in Chilika Lake: Case of Occupational Displacement of Fishermen. Economic and Political Weekly 37 (18): 1714–1718.Google Scholar
  67. Samal, K., and S. Meher. 2003. Fishing Communities on Chilika Lake: Comparative Socio-Economic Study. Economic and Political Weekly 38 (31): 3319–3325.Google Scholar
  68. Saravanan, V. 2006. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Response. Economic and Political Weekly 41 (38): 4086–4087.Google Scholar
  69. Saravanan, V., G. McDonald, and P. Mollinga. 2008. Critical Review of Integrated Water Resources Management: Moving Beyond Polarised Discourse. ZEF Working Paper Series 29: 1–23.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2009. Critical Review of Integrated Water Resources Management: Moving Beyond Polarised Discourse. Natural Resources Forum 33 (1): 76–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shah, T., and B. van Koppen. 2006. Is India Ripe for Integrated Water Resources Management? Fitting Water Policy to National Development Context. Economic and Political Weekly 41 (31): 3413–3421.Google Scholar
  72. Statistics Denmark. 2009. Agricultural Statistics 2009. Copenhagen: Statistics Denmark.Google Scholar
  73. Statistics Department. 1960. Statistical Yearbook 1960. Copenhagen: Statistics Denmark.Google Scholar
  74. Supreme Court of India. 1996. Judgement on S. Jagannath vs Union of India and Ors on 11 December, 1996. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  75. Swatuk, L.A. 2008. A Political Economy of Water in Southern Africa. Water Alternatives 1 (1): 24–47.Google Scholar
  76. Times of India. 2011.02.05. Illegal Chilika Gheries Ace Demolition. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  77. Trandem, A. 2011. Milestones of Concern: A Timeline of Concerns Expressed Over the Proposed Xayaburi Dam September 2008 to July 2011. International Rivers. Accessed 20 May 2017.
  78. UN General Assembly. 1997. Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 21 May 1997.Google Scholar
  79. UN-Water. 2008. Status Report on IWRM and Water Efficiency Plans Prepared for the 16th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development. Accessed 26 Oct 2011.
  80. Warner, J. 2007. The Beauty of the Beast: Multi-Stakeholder Participation for Integrated Catchment Management. In Multi-Stakeholder Platforms for Integrated Water Management, ed. J. Warner. Hampshire: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  81. World Bank. 2005. Implementation Completion Report (IDA 28010): Orissa Water Resources Consolidation Project. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. M. Jensen
    • 1
  • R. B. Lange
    • 2
  • J. C. Refsgaard
    • 3
  1. 1.Danish Ministry of Foreign AffairsCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Vestjyllands FolkschoolRøddingDenmark
  3. 3.Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)CopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations