Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Gallstones

  • Amy M. Cao
  • Guy D. Eslick


The prevalence of cholelithiasis or gallstones is highly variable throughout the world with a much higher prevalence well published in several ethnicities. Gallstones are common in the adult population affecting over 10–15% of the Caucasian adult population in developed countries [1–3]. However in certain ethnicities, such as North American Indians including Pima Indians, Chippewa Indians, Canadian Micmac Indians and other American Indian tribes in Arizona/Oklahoma/Dakotas, prevalence can be as high as 60–70% of the population [4, 5]. See Fig. 3.1.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of SurgeryThe Whiteley-Martin Research Centre University of SydneySydneyAustralia

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