Advertisement

Biliary Imaging for Gallstone Disease

  • Piers Dugdale
Chapter

Abstract

Medical imaging of the abdomen is of vital importance when assessing upper abdominal pain, both in the acute patient and in post-operative patients. It supports the clinical assessment and provides guidance when there is difficulty in evaluating the patient. Imaging allows the clinician to more accurately follow the outcomes of non-surgical treatment or the post-surgical course and intervene earlier or delay intervention if there is concern of complications.

References

  1. 1.
    Persson A, Dahlström N, Smedby O, et al. Three-dimensional drip infusion CT cholangiography in patients with suspected obstructive biliary disease: a retrospective analysis of feasibility and adverse reaction to contrast material. BMC Med Imaging. 2006;6(1):1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee NK, Kim S, Lee JW, et al. Biliary MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA and its clinical applications. Radiographics. 2009;29(6):1707–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan WC, Joe BN, Coakley FY, et al. Gallstone detection at CT in vitro: effect of peak voltage setting. Radiology. 2006;241(2):546–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Horton JD, Bilhartz LE. Gallstone disease and its complications. In: Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH, Fedelman M, editors. Sleisenger & Fortran’s gastrointestinal and liver disease: pathophysiology/diagnosis/management. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2003. p. 1065–90.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sherlock S, Dooley J. Gallstones and inflammatory gallbladder diseases. In: Dooley J, Sherlock S, editors. Diseases of the liver and biliary system. Malden, MA: Blackwell; 2002. p. 597–628.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gore RM, Yaghmai V, Newmark GM, et al. Imaging benign and malignant disease of the gallbladder. Radiol Clin N Am. 2002;40(6):1307–23. viPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ukaji M, Ebara M, Tsuchiya Y, et al. Diagnosis of gallstone somposition in magnetic resonance imaging: in vitro analysis. Eur J Radiol. 2002;41(1):49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ko CW, Sekijima JH, Lee SP, et al. Biliary sludge. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(4 Pt 1):301–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee NK, Kim S, Lee JW, et al. MR appearance of normal and abnormal bile: correlation with imaging and endoscopic findings. Eur J Radiol. 2010;76(2):211–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee SP, Nicholis JF, Park HZ. Biliary sludge as a cause of acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 1992;326(9):589–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hekimglu K, Ustundag Y, Dusak A, et al. MRCP vs ERCP n the evaluation of biliary pathologies: review of current literature. J Dig Dis. 2008;9:162–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Romagnuolo J, Bardou M, Rahme E, et al. Magnetic resonance cholangiopanreatogrphy: a meta-analysis of test performance in suspected biliary disease. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:547–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McMahon CJ. The relative roles of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound in diagnosis of malignant common bile duct strictures: a critically appraised topic. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33:10–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aube C, Delorme B, Yzet T, et al. MR cholangiopancreatography versus endoscopic sonography in suspected common bile duct lithiasis: a prospective, comparative study. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(1):55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Son YK, Kim YJ, Park HS, et al. Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening on computed tomography in patients with liver cirrhosis: correlation with clinical and laboratory variables. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2011;35(5):535–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hustley FM, Meldon SW, Banet GA, et al. The use of abdominal computed tomography in older ED patients with acute abdominal pain. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23(30):259–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fidler J, Paulson EK, Layfield L. CT evaluation of acute cholecystitis: findings and usefulness in diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166(5):1085–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamashita K, Jin MJ, Hirose Y, et al. CT finding of transient focal increased attenuation of the liver adjacent to the gallbladder in acute cholecystitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(2):343–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harvey RT, Miller WT Jr. Acute bilary disease: initial CT and follow-up versus initial US and follow-up CT. Radiology. 1999;213(3):831–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Catalano OA, Sahani DV, Kalva SP, et al. MR imaging of the gallbladder: a pictorial essay. Radiographics. 2008;28:135–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Loud PA, Semelka RC, Kettritz U, et al. MR of acute cholecystitis: comparison with normal gallbladder and other entities. Magn Reson Imaging. 1996;14:349–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fayad LM, Holland GA, Bergin D, et al. Functional magnetic resonance cholangiography (fMRC) of the gallbladder and biliary tree with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;18:449–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shaffer EA. Gallbladder sludge: what is its clinical significance? Curr Gastroenterol Rep (Current Medicine Group). 2001;3(2):166–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Janowitz P, Kratzer W, Zemmler T, et al. Gallbladder sludge: spontaneous course and incidence of complications in patients without stones. Hepatology. 1994;20(2):291–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gallahan WC, Conway JD. Diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2010;39(2):359–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haradome H, Ichikawa T, Sou H, et al. The pearl necklace sign: an imaging sign of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder at MR cholangiopancreatography. Radiology. 2003;227(1):80–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maldjian PD, Ghesani N, Ahmed S, Liu Y. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder: another cause for a “hot” gallbladder on 18F-FDG PET. Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189(1):W36–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jorgensen T, Jensen KH. Polyps in the gallbladder: a prevalence study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990;25(3):281–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee KF, Wong J, Li JC, Lai PB. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Am J Surg. 2004;188(2):186–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Myers RP, Shaffer EA, Beck PL. Gallbladder polyps: epidemiology, natural history and management. Can J Gastroenterol. 2002;16(3):187–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Terzi C, Sokmen S, Seckin S, Albayrak L, Ugurlu M. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: report of 100 cases with special reference to operative indications. Surgery. 2000;127(6):622–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sternberg SS. Diagnostic surgical pathology. New York: Raven; 1989.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kurtz AB, Middleton WD. Ultrasound. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1996.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mellnick VM, Menias CO, Sandrasegaran K, et al. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: disease spectrum with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2015;35:387–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ootani T, Shirai Y, Tsukada K, Muto T. Relationship between gallbladder carcinoma and the segmental type of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. Cancer. 1992;69(11):2647–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seretis C, Lagoudianakis E, Gemenetzis G, et al. Metaplastic changes in chronic cholecystitis: implications for early diagnosis and surgical intervention to prevent gallbladder metaplasia-dysplasia-cercinoma sequence. J Clin Med Res. 2014;6(1):26–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hallgrimsson P, Skaane P. Hypoechoic solitary inflammatory polyps of the gallbladder. J Clin Ultrasound. 1988;16(8):603–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Maeyama R, Yamaguchi K, Noshiro H, et al. A large inflammatory polyp of the gallbladder masquerading as gallbladder carcinoma. J Gastroenterol. 1998;33(5):770–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Susumu S, Matsuo S, Tsutsumi R, et al. Inflammatory polyp of the gallbladder mimicking early polypoid carcinoma. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2009;3(2):255–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang HL, Sun YG, Wang Z. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: diagnosis and indication for surgery. Br J Surg. 1992;79(3):227–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hundal R, Shaffer EA. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome. Clin Epidemiol. 2014;6:99–109.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Franquet T, Montes M, Ruiz de Azua Y, Jimenez FJ, Cozcolluela R. Primary gallbladder carcinoma: imaging findings in 50 patients with pathologic correlation. Gastrointest Radiol. 1991;16:143–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Park JK, Yoon YB, Kim YT, et al. Management strategies for gallbladder polyps: is it possible to predict malignant gallbladder polyps? Gut Liver. 2008;2(2):88–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hirooka Y, Naitoh Y, Goto H, Furukawa T, Ito A, Hayakawa T. Differential diagnosis of gallbladder masses using colour Doppler ultrasonography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;11(9):840–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Edge SB, Compton CC. The American Joint Committee on Cancer: the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual and the future of TNM. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1471–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fujita N, Noda Y, Kobayashi G, Kimura K, Yago A. Diagnosis of the depth of invasion of gallbladder carcinoma by EUS. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999;50:659–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yoshimitsu K, Honda H, Kaneko K, et al. Dynamic MRI of the gallbladder lesions: differentiation of benign from malignant. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1997;7(4):696–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tan CH, Lim KS. MRI of gallbladder cancer. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2013;19:312–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee J, Yun M, Kim KS, Lee JD, Kim CK. Risk stratification of gallbladder polyps (1-2cm) for surgical intervention with 18F-FDG PET/CT. J Nucl Med. 2012;53(3):353–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fagan SP, Awad SS, Rahwan K, et al. Prognostic factors for the development of gangrenous cholecystitis. Am J Surg. 2003;186:481–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wilson AK, Kozol RA, Salween WA, Manov LJ, Tennenburg SD. Gangrenous cholecystitis in an urban VA hospital. J Surg Res. 1994;56(5):402–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kane RA. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis and empyema of the gallbladder. Radiology. 1980;134:191–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Teefey SA, Baron RL, Radke HM, Bigler SA. Gangrenous cholecystitis: new observations on sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 1991;10:603–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hunt DRH, Chu FCK. Gangrenous cholecystitis in the laparoscopic era. Aust N Z J Surg. 2000;70:428–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Simeone J, Brink J, Mueller P, et al. The sonographic diagnosis of acute gangrenous cholecystitis: importance of the Murphy's sign. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;152:289–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bennett GL, Rusinek H, Lisi V, et al. CT findings in acute gangrenous cholecystitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;2:275–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Watanabe Y, Nagayama M, Okumura A, et al. MR imaging of acute biliary disorders. Radiographics. 2007;27:477–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Odashiro AN, Pereira PR, Odashiro Miiji LN, Nguyen GK. Angiosarcoma of the gallbladder and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005;19(4):257–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pandya R, O’Malley C. Haemorrhagic cholecystitis as a complication of anticoagulant therapy: role of CT in its diagnosis. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33(6):652–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tavernaraki K, Sykara A, Tavernaraki E, Chondros D, Lolis ED. Massive intraperitoneal bleeding due to haemorrhagic cholecystitis and gallbladder rupture: CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36(5):565–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Adusumilli S, Siegelman ES. MR imaging of the gallbladder. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2002;10:165–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Derici H, Kamer E, Kara C, et al. Gallbladder perforation: clinical presentation, predisposing factors and surgical outcomes of 46 patients. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011;22(5):505–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stefanidis D, Sirinek KR, Bingener J. Gallbladder perforation: risk factors and outcome. J Surg Res. 2006;131(2):204–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Niemeier OW. Acute free perforation of the gallbladder. Ann Surg. 1934;99(6):922–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Patel NB, Aytekin O, Thomas S. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions. Radiographics. 2013;33:1867–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kim PN, Lee KS, Kim IY, Bae WK, Lee BH. Gallbvladder perforation: comparison of US findings with CT. Abdom Imaging. 1994;19(3):239–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gabata T, Kadoya M, Matsui O, et al. Dynamic CT of hepatic abscesses: significance of transient segmental enhancement. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176(3):675–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mathieu D, Vasile N, Fagniez PL, et al. Dynamic CT features of hepatic abscesses. Radiology. 1985;154(3):749–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Raptopoulos V, Compton CC, Doherty P, et al. Chronic acalculus gallbladder disease: multi-imaging evaluation with clinicl-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147:721–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Smith EA, Dillman JR, Elsayes KM, et al. Cross-sectional imaging of acute and chronic gallbladder inflammatory disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192:188–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yun EJ, Cho SG, Park S, et al. Chronic gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis: differentiation with two-phase spiral CT. Abdom Imaging. 2004;29:102–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chen DF, Hu L, Yi P, et al. H. pylori are associated with chronic cholecystitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:1119–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bader TR, Semelka RC. Gallbladder and biliary system. In: Semelka RC, editor. Abdominal-pelvic MRI. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2006. p. 447–507.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sahani DV, Kalva SP. Magnetic resonance imaging of the gallbladder. In: Hesselink JR, Zlatkin MB, Crues VC, Edelman RR, editors. Clinical magnetic resonance imaging. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2005. p. 2541–53.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chamarthy M, Freeman LM. Hepatobiliary scan findings in chronic cholecystitis. Clin Nucl Med. 2010;35:244–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kawabe AO, Torii K, Kawamura E, et al. Distinguishing benign from malignant gallbladder wall thickening using FDG-PET. Ann Nucl Med. 2006;20(10):699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dähnert W. Radiology review manual. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2006.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Liang HP, Cheung WK, Su FH, Chu FY. Porcelain gallbladder. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(5):960–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brown KM, Geller DA. Porcelain gallbladder and risk of gallbladder cancer. Arch Surg. 2011;146(10):1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Casas D, Perez-Andres R, Ja J, et al. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a radiological study of 12 cases and review of the literature. Abdom Imaging. 1996;21:456–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kim PN, Ha HK, Kim YH, et al. US findings of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Clin Radiol. 1998;53:290–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Parra JA, Acinas O, Bueno J, et al. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: clinical, Sonographic and CT findigns in 26 patients. Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174:979–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chun KA, Ha HK, Yu ES, et al. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: features with emphasis on differentiation from gallbladder carcinoma. Radiology. 1997;203:93–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shuto R, Kiyosue H, Komatsu E, et al. CT and MR imaging findings of Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: correlation with pathologic findings. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:440–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mirvis SE, Vanright JR, Nelson AW, et al. The diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis: a comparison of sonography, scintigraphy and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147:1171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wind P, Chevallier JM, Jones D, Frileux P, Cugnenc PH. Cholecystectomy for cholecystitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Surg. 1994;168(3):244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wang AJ, Wang TE, Lin CC, Lin SC, Shih SC. Clinical predictors of severe gallbladder complications in acute acalculous cholecystitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9(12):2821.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ziessman HA. Cholecystokinin cholescintigraphy: clinical indications and proper methodology. Update Nucl Med. 2001;39:997–1006.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mentzer RM Jr, Golden GT, Chandler JG, Horsley JS 3rd. A comparative appraisal of empysematous cholecystitis. Am J Surg. 1975;129(1):10–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Garcia-Sancho Tellez L, Rodruiguez-Montes JA, Fernandez de Lis S, Garcia-Sancho Martin L. Acute emphysematous cholecystitis: report of twenty cases. Hepato-Gastroenterology. 1999;46(28):2144–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nemcek AA Jr, Gore RM, Vogelzang RL, Grant M. The effervescent gallbladder: a sonographic sign of emphysematous cholecystitis. Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150:575–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wu CS, Yao WJ, Hsiao CH. Effervescent gallbladder: sonographic findings in emphysematous cholecystitis. J Clin Ultrasound. 1998;26:272–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Grayson DE, Abbott RM, Levy AD, Sherman PM. Emphysematous infections of the abdomen and pelvis: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 2002;22(3):543–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Escarce JJ, Shea JA, Chen W, Qian Z, Schwartz JS. Outcomes of open cholecystectomy in the elderly: a longitudinal analysis of 21,000 cases in the prelaparoscopic era. Surgery. 1995;117:156–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Huber DF, Edward W, Cooperman M. Cholecystectomy in elderly patients. Am J Surg. 1983;146:719–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    vanSonnenberg E, D'Agostino HB, Goodacre BW, Sanchez RB, Casola G. Percutaneous gallbladder puncture and cholecystostomy: results, complications, and caveats for safety. Radiology. 1992;183:167–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schofer JM. Biliary causes of postcholecystectomy syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2010;39(4):406–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Moran J, Del Grosso E, Wills JS, Hagy JA, Baker R. Imaging of complications and normal postoperative CT appearance. Abdom Imaging. 1994;19:143–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stringer MD, Dasgupta D, McClean P, Davison S, Ramsden W. “Surgicel abscess” after pediatric liver transplantation: a potential trap. Liver Transpl. 2003;9:197–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mclamed JW, Paulson EK, Kliewer MA. Sonographic appearance of oxidised cellulose (Surgicel): pitfall in the diagnosis of postoperative abscess. J Ultrasound Med. 1995;14:27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lawson TL. The biliary ductal system. In: Ravin CE, Putman CE, editors. Textbook of diagnostic imaging. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1994. p. 908–42.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zwiebel WJ. The biliary system: sonographic technique and anatomy. In: Zwiebeck WJ, Sohaey R, editors. Introduction to ultrasound. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1998. p. 122–31.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wu CC, Ho YH, Chen CY. Effect of aging on CBD diameter: a real-time ultrasonographic study. J Clin Ultrasound. 1984;12:473–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Graham MF, Cooperberg PL, Cohen MM, Burhenne HK. The size of the normal common hepatic duct following cholecystectomy: an ultrasonographic study. Radiology. 1980;135:137–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hunt DR, Scott AJ. Changes in bile duct diameter after cholecsytectomy a 5-year prospective study. Gastroenterology. 1998;97:1485–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mueller PR, Ferucci JT Jr, Simeone JF, et al. Postcholecsytectomy bile duct dilatation: myth or reality? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981;136:355–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    McArthur TA, Planz VP, Fineberg NS, et al. The common duct dilates after cholecystectomy and with advancing age: reality or myth? J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:1385–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Benjaminov F, Leichtman G, Naftali T, Half EE, Knoikoff FM. Effects of age and cholecystectomy on common bile duct diameter as measured by endoscopic ultrasonography. Surg Endosc. 2013;27:303–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Slanetz PJ, Boland GW, Mueller PR. Imaging and interventional radiology in laparoscopic injuries to the gallbladder and biliary system. Radiology. 1996;201:595–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chong VH, Chong CF. Biliary complications secondary to post-cholecystectomy clip migration: a review of 69 cases. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14(4):688–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Van Hoe L, Mermuys K, Vanhoenacker P. MRCP pitfalls. Abdom Imaging. 2004;29:360–87.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Piccinni G, Angrisano A, Testini M, Bonomo GM. Diagnosing and treating sphincter of Oddi dysfunction—a critical literature review and reevaluation. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:350–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Van Hoe L, Gryspeerdt S, Vanbeckevoort D, et al. Normal Vaterian sphincter complex: evaluation of morphology and contractility with dynamic single-shot MR cholangiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170:1497–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Csendes A, Diaz JC, Burdiles P, Maluenda F, Nava O. Mirizzi syndrome and cholcystobiliary fistula: a unifying classification. Br J Surg. 1989;76(11):1139–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Becker CD, Hassler H, Terrier F. Peroperative diagnosis of the Mirizzi syndrome: limitations of sonography and computed tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1984;143:591–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kim PN, Outwater EK, Mitchell DG. Mirizzi syndrome: evaluation by MRI imaging. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:2546–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Chan FL, Man SW, Leong LL, Fan ST. Evaluation of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis with CT: analysis of 50 patients. Radiology. 1989;170(1 Pt 1):165–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical ImagingNepean HospitalSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations