Advertisement

Non-farm Sector Growth and Female Empowerment in Bangladesh

  • Minhaj Mahmud
  • Keijiro Otsuka
  • Yasuyuki Sawada
  • Mari Tanaka
  • Tomomi Tanaka
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, using a nationally representative panel data set covering the years 1988 to 2008, we investigate the role of non-farm sector growth in facilitating female labor force participation and educational attainment. Our results indicate that the proportion of village non-farm labor force participation is positively associated with female school enrollment as well as other indicators of women empowerment such as marriage and fertility. Looking at the broader set of non-farm occupations from household data, we find that an additional year of education is associated with a 0.17 unit increase in the labor force participation in the non-farm sector and with a 7.5% reduction in the number of childbirths.

References

  1. Abadian, S. 1996. Women’s Autonomy and Its Impact on Fertility. World Development 24 (12): 1793–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, S. 2012. The Effect of Gender-Based Returns to Borrowing on Intra-Household Resource Allocation in Rural Bangladesh. World Development 40 (6): 1164–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amin, S., I. Diamond, R.T. Naved, and M. Newby. 1998. Transition to Adulthood of Female Garment-Factory Workers in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning 29 (2): 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin, M.N., and T. Sonobe. 2014. The Success of the Industrial Development Policy in the Pharmaceutical Industry in Bangladesh. In State Building and Development, ed. K. Otsuka and T. Shiraishi. New York: Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, S., and M. Eswaran. 2009. What Determines Female Autonomy? Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Development Economics 90 (2): 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Estudillo, J.P., T. Matsumoto, H.C.Z. Uddin, N.S. Kumanayake, and K. Otsuka. 2013. Labor Markets, Occupational Choice, and Rural Poverty in Selected Countries in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Background Paper for the World Development Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  7. Estudillo, J.P., Y. Sawada, and K. Otsuka. 2009. The Changing Determinants of Schooling Investments: Evidence from Villages in the Philippines, 1985–89 and 2002–04. Journal of Development Studies 45 (3): 391–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Field, E., and A. Ambrus. 2008. Early Marriage, Age of Menarche, and Female Schooling Attainment in Bangladesh. Journal of Political Economy 116 (5): 881–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hahn, Y., A. Islam K. Nuzhat, R. Smyth, and H. Yang. 2016. Education, Marriage and Fertility: Long-Term Evidence from a Female Stipend Program in Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  10. Hashemi, S.M., S.R. Schuler, and A.P. Riley. 1996. Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh. World Development 24 (4): 635–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heath, R., and A.M. Mobarak. 2015. Manufacturing Growth and the Lives of Bangladesh Women. Journal of Development Economics 115: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hossain, M., and A. Bayes. 2009. Rural Economy and Livelihoods Insights from Bangladesh. Dhaka, AH Development Publishing House.Google Scholar
  13. Kabeer, N., and S. Mahmud. 2004. Globalization, Gender and Poverty: Bangladesh Women Workers in Export and Local Market. Journal of International Development 16: 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khandker, Shahidur, Mark Pitt, and Nobuhiko Fuwa. 2003. Subsidy to Promote Girls’ Secondary Education: The Female Stipend Program in Bangladesh. Mimeo. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  15. La Ferrara, E., A. Chong, and S. Duryea. 2012. Soap Operas and Fertility: Evidence from Brazil. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4 (4): 1–31.Google Scholar
  16. Mahmud, S., N.M. Shah, and S. Becker. 2012. Measurement of Women’s Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh. World Development 40 (3): 610–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mottaleb, K.A., and T. Sonobe. 2011. An Inquiry Into the Rapid Growth of the Garment Industry in Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change 60 (1): 67–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Osmani, L.N.K. 2007. A Breakthrough in Women’s Bargaining Power: The Impact of Microcredit. Journal of International Development 19 (5): 695–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pitt, M.M., and S.R. Khandker. 1998. The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter? Journal of Political Economy 106 (5): 958–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pitt, M.M., S.R. Khandker, and J. Cartwright. 2006. Empowering Women with Micro Finance: Evidence from Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change 54 (4): 791–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rhee, Y.W. 1990. The Catalyst Model of Development: Lessons from Bangladesh’s Success with Garment Exports. World Development 18 (2): 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. United Nations. 2014. The Millennium Development Goals Report. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  23. World Bank. 2012. World Development Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minhaj Mahmud
    • 1
  • Keijiro Otsuka
    • 2
  • Yasuyuki Sawada
    • 3
  • Mari Tanaka
    • 4
  • Tomomi Tanaka
    • 5
  1. 1.Bangladesh Institute of Development StudiesDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Kobe UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Hitotsubashi UniversityTokyoJapan
  5. 5.National Graduate Institute for Policy StudiesTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations