3.4 Clinical Data Standards



The history of standards development in healthcare is the history of consensus building through the use of the scientific method. It is the history of scientific invention, first-to-market, natural monopolies, snake oil salesmen, regulatory oversight, market consensus, and international treaties. And its modern history traces back over 400 years.


  1. Develop Standards. IEEE-SA—the standards development lifecycle. Accessed 17 May 2017
  2. FHIR Ballot Process. FHIR ballot process—HL7Wiki. Accessed 17 May 2017
  3. How Are Standards Made? IEEE-SA—how are standards made? Accessed 17 May 2017
  4. How We Develop Standards. Developing standards. 27 Feb 2017. Accessed 17 May 2017
  5. The Balloting Process. IEEE-SA—the balloting process. Accessed 17 May 2017
  6. The History of ASTM International. Accessed 17 May 2017

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.East Orange General HospitalEast OrangeUSA

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