3.4 Clinical Data Standards

  • Scott Mankowitz


The history of standards development in healthcare is the history of consensus building through the use of the scientific method. It is the history of scientific invention, first-to-market, natural monopolies, snake oil salesmen, regulatory oversight, market consensus, and international treaties. And its modern history traces back over 400 years.


  1. Develop Standards. IEEE-SA—the standards development lifecycle. Accessed 17 May 2017
  2. FHIR Ballot Process. FHIR ballot process—HL7Wiki. Accessed 17 May 2017
  3. How Are Standards Made? IEEE-SA—how are standards made? Accessed 17 May 2017
  4. How We Develop Standards. Developing standards. 27 Feb 2017. Accessed 17 May 2017
  5. The Balloting Process. IEEE-SA—the balloting process. Accessed 17 May 2017
  6. The History of ASTM International. Accessed 17 May 2017

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Mankowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.East Orange General HospitalEast OrangeUSA

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