Advertisement

The Internet and the Americanization of Electoral Campaigning in East Asian Democracies

  • Kazuhiro Maeshima
Chapter
Part of the Political Campaigning and Communication book series (PCC)

Abstract

This chapter explores how the Internet has transformed electoral campaigns by comparing the cases of four advanced democracies (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States). It focuses on how the three East Asian democracies have adopted certain electoral campaign elements and strategies first developed in the United States. This has effected the emergence of what has been called an “Americanization” of various characteristics of campaigning in these countries. Major examples include the instrumental relationship between politics and the media and the professionalization of election campaigns, which was much less prevalent in the Asian democracies before the Internet.

References

  1. Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Shanto Iyengar. 1997. Going Negative: How Attack Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ansolabehere, Stephen, Roy Behr, and Shanto Iyengar. 1993. The Media Game. New York: Macmillan Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Balnaves, Mark, and Michele A. Willson. 2011. A New Theory of Information & the Internet: Public Sphere Meets Protocol. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  4. Barber, Benjamin. 1995. Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism’s Challenge to Democracy. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, Aaron. 2007. Blogging America: The New Public Sphere. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, W. Lance, and Alexandra Segerberg. 2013. The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumler, Jay, and Michael Gurevitch. 1975. Towards a Comparative Framework for Political Communication Research. In Political Communication: Issues and Strategies for Research, ed. S.H. Chaffee, 165–193. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Blumler, Jay, and Michael Gurevitch. 1991. The Election Agenda-Setting Roles of Television Journalists: Comparative Observation at the BBC and NBC. In The Formation of Campaign Agendas, ed. Holli A. Semetko, Jay G. Blumler, Michael Gurevitch, and David H. Weaver, 33–61. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 1995. The Crisis of Public Communication. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ———. 2001. ‘Americanization’ Reconsidered: UK–US Campaign Communication Comparisons Across Time. In Election Campaigning Japanese Style, ed. W. Lance Bennett and Gerald L. Curtis, 280–403. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Curtis, Gerald L. 1971. Election Campaigns Japanese Style. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1988. The Japanese Way of Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dalton, Russell J. 2008. Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Western Democracies. Washington, DC: Chatham CQ Press.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. 1998. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Delli Carpini, Michael X., and Scott Keeter. 1993. Measuring Political Knowledge: Putting First Things First. American Journal of Political Science 37 (4): 1179–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diamond, Robert, and Stephen Bates. 1992. The Spot: The Rise of Political Advertising on Television. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  17. Esser, Frank, and Barbara Pfetsch, eds. 2004. Comparing Political Communication: Theories, Cases, and Challenges. New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Flanagan, Scott. 1996. Media Exposure and the Quality of Political Participation in Japan. In Media and Politics in Japan, ed. Susan J. Pharr and Ellis S. Krauss, 277–312. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  19. Gainous, Jason, and Kevin M. Wagner. 2013. Tweeting to Power: The Social Media Revolution in American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garramone, Gina. 1984. Voter Responses to Negative Political Ads. Journalism Quarterly 61: 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Habermas, Jürgen. 1991. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Boston: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hall Jamieson, Kathleen. 1996. Packaging the Presidency. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hallin, Daniel C., and Paolo Mancini. 2004. Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Han, Jongwoo. 2012. Networked Information Technologies, Elections, and Politics: Korea and the United States. Lanham: Lexington.Google Scholar
  25. Harfoush, Rahaf. 2009. Yes, We Did: An Inside Look at How Social Media Built the Obama Brand. Berkeley: New Rider.Google Scholar
  26. Issenberg, Sasha. 2012. The Victory Lab: The Secret Science of Wining Campaigns. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  27. Jacobson, Gary. 1992. The Politics of Congressional Elections. 3rd ed. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  28. Kendall, Kathleen. 1995. The Problem of Beginning in New Hampshire: Control Over the Play. In Presidential Campaign Discourse: Strategic Communication Problems, ed. Kathleen Kendall, 1–34. Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  29. Kerbel, Matthew Robert. 1995. Remote & Controlled: Media Politics in a Cynical Age. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 2009. Netroots: Online Progressives and the Transformation of American Politics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Kern, Montague. 1989. Thirty-Second Politics: Political Advertising in the Eighties. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  32. Kiyohara, Shoko, and Kazuhiro Maeshima, eds. 2011. Internet and Elections in the U.S., Japan, Korea: A Comparative Analysis. Tokyo: Keio University Press. (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  33. ———, eds. 2013. Internet and Elections in the U.S., Japan, Korea: In Search of the Online Public Sphere. Tokyo: Keio University Press. (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  34. Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, and Benjamin K. Johnson. 2014. Selective Exposure for Better or Worse: Its Mediating Role for Online News’ Impact on Political Participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 19 (2): 184–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lengle, James I. 1981. Representation and Presidential Primaries: The Democratic Party in the Post-Reform Era. Westport: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  36. Lichter, Robert, Daniel Amundson, and Richard Noyes. 1993. The Video Campaign. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
  37. Mayer, William G., and Andrew E. Busch. 2004. The Front-Loading Problem in Presidential Nominations. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  38. Merrit, Sharyne. 1984. Negative Political Advertising. Journal of Advertising 13: 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Negrine, Ralph. 2008. The Transformation of Political Communication: Continuities and Changes in Media and Politics. Houndsmill/New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Negrine, Ralph, and Stylianos Papathanassopoulos. 1996. The ‘Americanization’ of Political Communication. The International Journal of Press/Politics 1 (2): 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Negrine, Ralph, Paolo Mancini, Christina Holtz-Bacha, and Stylianos Papathanassopoulos, eds. 2007. Professionalisation of Political Communication. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.Google Scholar
  42. Oates, Sarah, Diana Owen, and Rachel Gibson, eds. 2006. The Internet and Politics: Citizens, Voters, and Activists. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Owen, Diana. 1991. Media Messages in American Presidential Elections. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  44. ———. 2008/2009. Election Media and Youth Political Engagement. Journal of Social Science Education 7/8(2/1): 14–24. http://www.jsse.org/index.php/jsse/article/view/1064/967
  45. Paletz, David, Diana Owen, and Timothy Cook. 2011. Government and Politics in the Information Age. Boston: Flat World Knowledge Press.Google Scholar
  46. Patterson, Thomas. 1980. The Mass Media Election: How American Choose Their President. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 1994. Out of Order. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  48. Pfau, Michael, and Henry C. Kenski. 1990. Attack Politics. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  49. Pinkleton, Bruce. 1997. The Effects of Negative Comparative Political Advertising on Candidate Evaluations and Advertising Evaluations. Journal of Advertising 26: 19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Polsby, Nelson. 1983. Consequences of Party Reform. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Polsby, Nelson, and Aaron Wildavsky. 1996. Presidential Elections. Chatham: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  52. Roberts, John Michael. 2014. New Media and Public Activism: Neoliberalism, the State and Radical Protest in the Public Sphere. Bristle: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Robinson, Michael. 1981. The Media in 1980: Was the Message the Message? In The American Elections of 1980, ed. Austin Ranney, 121–135. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
  54. Salmore, Barbara, and Stephen Salmore. 1989. Candidates, Parties, and Campaigns. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  55. Semetko, Holli A., Jay G. Blumler, Michael Gurevitch, David H. Weaver, Steve Barkin, and G. Cleveland Wilhoit. 1991. The Formation of Campaign Agendas: A Comparative Analysis of Party and Media Roles in Recent American and British Elections. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, Aaron, Kay Lehman Schlozman, Sidney Verba, and Henry Brady. 2009. The Current State of Civic Engagement in America. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  57. Stephen, Ward, Diana Owen, Richard Davis, and David Taras, eds. 2008. Making a Difference: The Internet and Elections in Comparative Perspective. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  58. Sunstein, Cass R. 2001. Republic.com. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  59. ———. 2009. Republic.com 2.0. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 2017. #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Swanson, David L., and Paolo Mancini, eds. 1996. Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  62. Valentino, Nicholas A., Antoine J. Banks, Vincent L. Hutchings, and Anne K. Davis. 2009. Selective Exposure in the Internet Age: The Interaction Between Anxiety and Information Utility. Political Psychology 30 (4): 591–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wayne, Stephen. 2004. The Road to the White House, 2004. New York: Thomson.Google Scholar
  64. West, Darrell M. 2013. Air Wars: Television Advertising in Election Campaigns. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhiro Maeshima
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Global StudiesSophia UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations