‘Crowdfunded Diplomacy’? The EU’s Role in the Triangular Diplomacy Over the Ukraine Crisis
This chapter examines the European Union’s (EU’s) role in the Ukraine crisis by putting it in the transatlantic context. It begins by analyzing the main contours of the EU’s policy vis-à-vis its eastern neighborhood. It then discusses the EU’s response to the rapidly unfolding crisis and eventual conflict in Ukraine and examines those efforts in a triangular context. The chapter concludes by assessing the EU’s overall performance in the crisis and makes a prognosis concerning the possible evolution of the EU’s role. The conclusion is that the EU policy line in the Ukraine crisis is not derivative of the US policy. It seems that the Ukraine crisis has, to a degree at least, helped the EU to come of age as an international actor.
- Baun, M. (2004). The Implications of EU Enlargement for the United States. Perspectives, 21, 27–38.Google Scholar
- David, M., Gower, J., & Haukkala, H. (Eds.). (2013). National Perspectives on Russia: European Foreign Policy in the Making? London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Dragneva, R., & Wolczuk, K. (Eds.). (2013). Eurasian Economic Integration: Law, Policy and Politics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Franke, U. (2015, March). War By Non-military Means. Understanding Russian Information Warfare. FOR-R-4065-SE. Stockholm, FOI.Google Scholar
- Goldgeier, J. M., & McFaul, M. (2003). Power and Purpose. U.S. Policy Toward Russia After the Cold War. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
- Haukkala, H. (2010). The EU-Russia Strategic Partnership: The Limits of Post-Sovereignty in International Relations. Oxford/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Haukkala, H. (2013). The Three Paradigms of European Security in Eastern Europe: Co-operation, Competition and Conflict. In S. Biscop & R. Whitman (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of European Security. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Haukkala, H. (2016a). A Bridge Too Far? How to Prevent the Unravelling of Western Policies Towards Wider Europe. In D. S. Hamilton & S. Meister (Eds.), The Eastern Question. Russia, the West and Europe’s Grey Zone (pp. 219–232). Washington, DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations, Johns Hopkins and DGAP.Google Scholar
- Hawkins, D. G., Lake, D. A., Nielson, D. L., & Tierney, M. J. (Eds.). (2006). Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Janda, J., Sharibzhanov, I., Terzi, E., Krejci, M. & Fiser, J. (2017). How Do European Democracies React to Russian Aggression? Study of Shifts in Strategic & Policy Documents of EU28 Following Russian Aggression Against Ukraine. Kremlin Watch Report, 22.04.2017. Available at http://www.europeanvalues.net/vyzkum/european-democracies-react-russian-aggression/. Accessed 28 April 2017.
- Jorgensen, K. E., Kalland, Å., Drieskens, E., Laatikainen, K., & Tonra, B. (Eds.). (2015). The Sage Handbook of European Foreign Policy. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Karaganov, S. (2005, January). Russia and the International Order. In D. Lynch (ed.), What Russia Sees (pp. 23–43). Chaillot Paper No. 74. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
- Kelley, M. B. (2014, April 23). Here’s Why the EU Isn’t Going to Approve Tough Sanctions on Russia Right Now. Business Insider. Available at http://www.businessinsider.com/eu-and-sanctions-on-russia-2014-4. Accessed 26 April 2017.
- Maass, A.-S. (2016). EU-Russia Relations (1999–2015): From Courtship to Confrontation. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McGuire, S., & Smith, M. (2008). The European Union and the United States. Competition and Convergence in the Global Arena. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Menon, R., & Rumer, E. (2015). Conflict in Ukraine. The Unwinding of the Post-Cold War Order. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Popescu, N., & Wilson, A. (2009). The Limits of Enlargement-lite: European and Russian Power in the Troubled Neighbourhood. London: European Council on Foreign Relations. Available at http://ecfr.3cdn.net/befa70d12114c3c2b0_hrm6bv2ek.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2017.
- Putin, V. (2014, March 18). Address by President of the Russian Federation. Available at http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/20603. Accessed 8 May 2017.
- Regelsberger, E., & Wessels, W. (1996). The CFSP Institutions and Procedures: A Third Way for the Second Pillar. European Foreign Affairs Review, 1(1), 29–54.Google Scholar
- Rossi, J. (2014, June 9). Russia Foreign Minister: Russia Doing Everything It Can to Resolve Ukraine Crisis. The Wall Street Journal. Available at https://www.wsj.com/articles/russia-foreign-minister-russia-doing-everything-it-can-to-resolve-ukraine-crisis-1402341848. Accessed 26 April 2017.
- Sadowski, R., & Wierzbowska-Miazga, A. (2014, July 17). Russia Is Blocking a Free Trade Area Between the EU and Ukraine. OSW Analyses. Available at https://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2014-09-17/russia-blocking-a-free-trade-area-between-eu-and-ukraine. Accessed 26 April 2017.
- Sakwa, R. (2015a). Frontline Ukraine: Crisis in the Borderlands. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- Schiffers, S. (2015). A Decade of Othering: Russian Political Leaders’ Discourse on Russia-EU Relations 2004–2014. East European Quarterly, 43(1), 1–27.Google Scholar
- Stent, A. (2014). The Limits of Partnership. U.S.-Russian Relations in the Twenty-First Century. Princeton/Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Stewart, S. (2009, May). Russia and the Eastern Partnership. Loud Criticism. Quiet Interest in Cooperation. SWP Comments 7. Berlin, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.Google Scholar
- Talbott, S. (2002). The Russia Hand: A Memoir of Presidential Diplomacy. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Van Rompuy, H. (2014). Statement by President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy at the Occasion of the Signing Ceremony of the Political Provisions of the Association Agreement Between the European Union and Ukraine, Brussels, 21 March 2014, EUCO 68/14, Presse 176, PR PCE 61.Google Scholar
- Wilson, A. (2014). Ukraine Crisis: What It Means for the West. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Zygar, M. (2016). Putinin sisäpiiri. Nyky-Venäjän lyhyt historia [All the Kremlin’s Men: Inside the Court of Vladimir Putin]. (trans. from Russian to Finnish by Mallinen, J.). Helsinki: Otava.Google Scholar