Advertisement

Empirical Scene Setting: The Contours of the Crisis and Response

  • Alasdair R. Young
  • Vicki L. Birchfield
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter sets the stage empirically for the other contributions. It begins by establishing the significance of Russia’s aggression in Ukraine for the transatlantic community before describing the chain of events that led to it. The chapter focuses on how the US and the EU have responded to Russia’s aggression, particularly on efforts aimed at halting the conflict in Ukraine, measures intended to support Ukraine and steps to reassure North Atlantic Treaty Organization members bordering Ukraine. It concludes by identifying three analytically pertinent questions that motivate the rest of the volume: Why are the EU’s policies so similar to those of the US? How has EU-US cooperation affected the policies that they have each pursued? How has that cooperation affected the response to the crisis?

References

  1. Albright, M. (2014, September 4). A United Front. Foreign Policy. Available at: http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/09/04/a-united-front/. Accessed 18 December 2014.
  2. Booth, W. (2014, February 28). Armed Men Take Control of Crimean Airport. The Washington Post. Avaiable at https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/pro-russia-separatists-flex-muscle-in-ukraines-crimean-peninsula/2014/02/27/dac10d54-9ff0-11e3-878c-65222df220eb_story.html?utm_term=.423b055e3b3d. Accessed 14 August 2017.
  3. Breedlove, P. (2016, July/August). NATO’s Next Act: How to Handle Russia and Other Threats. Foreign Affairs, 95(4), 96–105.Google Scholar
  4. Commission. (2014, May 28). European Energy Security Strategy, COM(2014) 330 final. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0330&from=EN. Accessed 14 August 2017.
  5. Commission. (2016a, June 21). European Union, Trade in Goods with Russia. Directorate General for Trade. Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_113440.pdf. Accessed 9 Aug 2016.
  6. Commission. (2016b, June). Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe: A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. Available at: http://europa.eu/globalstrategy/sites/globalstrategy/files/about/eugs_review_web_5.pdf.
  7. Cooper, H. & Kanter, J. (2015). NATO, Alarmed by Russian Actions in Syria, Shores Up Defenses. New York Times.Google Scholar
  8. Council. (2014). Council Conclusions on Ukraine. Foreign Affairs Council Meeting, Brussels, 3 March.Google Scholar
  9. Council. (2017). EU Restrictive Measures in Response to the Crisis in Ukraine. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/sanctions/ukraine-crisis/. Accessed 8 May 2017.
  10. Diuk, N. (2014, March–April). Euromaidan: Ukraine’s Self-Organizing Revolution. World Affairs.Google Scholar
  11. European Council. (2003, December 12). A Secure Europe in a Better World. Available at https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf. Accessed 11 Aug 2016.
  12. European Council. (2015, March 19). Conclusions on External Relations. Press release 134/15.Google Scholar
  13. European Council. (2016, December 15). Conclusions on Ukraine. Press release 785/16.Google Scholar
  14. European Parliament. (2015). Economic Impact on the EU of Sanctions over Ukraine Conflict. Luxembourg: European Parliametary Research Service. PE 569.020, October.Google Scholar
  15. Fogh Rasmussen, A. (2014, September 15). The Future of Euro-Atlantic Security. Carnegie Europe. Available at: http://carnegieeurope.eu/publications/?fa=56616. Accessed 14 Oct 2015.
  16. Hallenberg, J., & Karlsson, H. (2006). Conclusions. In J. Hallenberg & H. Karlsson (Eds.), Changing Transatlantic Security Relations: Do the US, the EU and Russia Form a New Strategic Triangle? (pp. 205–215). London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. House of Lords. (2015, February 20). The EU and Russia: Before and Beyond the Crisis in Ukraine. European Union Committee, 6th Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 115.Google Scholar
  18. Hughes, J. (2006). EU Relations with Russia: Partnership or Assymetric Interdependency? In N. Casarini & C. Musu (Eds.), The EU’s Foreign Policy in an Evolving International System: The Road to Convergence. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  19. King, C. (2015, July-August). The Decline of International Studies: Why Flying Blind Is Dangerous. Foreign Affairs, 94(4), 88–98.Google Scholar
  20. Lavenex, S. (2011). Concentric Circles of ‘European’ integration: A Typology of EU External Governance Relations. Comparative European Politics, 9(3), 372–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lyman, R. & Kramerjan, A. E. (2015, January 23). War Is Exploding Anew in Ukraine; Rebels Vow More. New York Times. Google Scholar
  22. Mearsheimer, J. J. (2014, September-October). Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West’s Fault: The Liberal Delusions That Provoked Putin. Foreign Affairs, 93(5), 77–89.Google Scholar
  23. Menon, R., & Rumer, E. (2015). The Unwinding of the Post-Cold War Order. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. NATO [North Atlantic Treaty Organization]. (2015). The Readiness Action Plan, 25 June. Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_119353.htm?selectedLocale=en. Accessed 29 June 2015.
  25. Peterson, J. (2012). The EU as a Global Actor. In E. Bomberg, J. Peterson, & R. Corbett (Eds.), The European Union: How Does It Work? (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Pifer, S. (2017). Minsk II at Two Years. Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2017/02/15/minsk-ii-at-two-years/. Accessed 8 May 2017.
  27. Rees, W. (2011). The U.S—EU Security Relationship. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rettman, A. (2016, January13). Sanctions to Have Little Impact on Russia in 2016, US says. Euobserver.Google Scholar
  29. Roberts, K. (2014). Détente 2.0? The Meaning of Russia’s ‘Reset’ with the United States. International Studies Perspectives, 15(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sakwa, R. (2015). Frontline Ukraine: Crisis in the Borderlands. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  31. Schmidt, E. & Meyers, S. (2015, June 23). NATO Refocuses on the Kremlin, Its Original Foe. New York Times Google Scholar
  32. Schmidt-Felzmann, A. (2011). ‘With or Without the EU? Understanding EU Member States’ Motivations for Dealing with Russia at the European or the National Level. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, K. E. (2008). European Foreign Policy in a Changing World. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  34. Stent, A. (2012). US-Russia Relations in the Second Obama Administration. Survival, 54(6), 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Timmerman, H. (1996). Relations Between the EU and Russia: The Agreement on Partnership and Co-operation. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 12(2), 196–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Traynor, I. (2014, February 21). Ukraine Protests: End Nears for Viktor Yanukovych Despite Concessions. The Guardian.Google Scholar
  37. USTR (United States Trade Representative). (2016). National Trade Estimates Report 2016. Available at: https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/2016-NTE-Report-FINAL.pdf. Accessed 10 Aug 2016.
  38. Walt, S. M. (2014, September 4). NATO Owes Putin a Big Thank You. Foreign Policy. Available at: http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/09/04/nato-owes-putin-a-big-thank-you/. Accessed 18 December 2014.
  39. White House. (2015, February 1). US National Security Strategy 2015. Washington, DC: The White House.Google Scholar
  40. World Bank. (2015). Russia Economic Report: The Dawn of a New Economic Era? No. 33, April.Google Scholar
  41. World Bank. (2016, April). Russia Economic Report: The Long Journey to Recovery, 35. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  42. Young, A. R., & Peterson, J. (2014). Parochial Global Europe: 21st Century Trade Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alasdair R. Young
    • 1
  • Vicki L. Birchfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Sam Nunn School of International AffairsGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations