Aesthetic Principles for Breast Reconstruction: Breast Aesthetic Units and Evaluation of Late Aesthetic Results

  • Marcelo M. C. Sampaio
  • Murillo Fraga


Aesthetics (aisthésis) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the study of nature and beauty. Several philosophers have encountered great difficulty when attempting to define beauty, or even ugliness, and even more when attempting to quantify this property. Kant, a respected philosopher whose aesthetic notions were quoted by his peers, asserted that it was impossible to establish theoretical rules to build beautiful things.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcelo M. C. Sampaio
    • 1
  • Murillo Fraga
    • 1
  1. 1.Hospital Sírio Libanês, Plastic and Reconstructive SurgerySão PauloBrazil

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