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Acute Coronary Syndrome: Ruptured and Intact Fibrous Caps

  • Annapoorna Kini
  • Jagat Narula
  • Yuliya Vengrenyuk
  • Samin Sharma
Chapter

Abstract

Coronary thrombosis is the most common cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including sudden cardiac death. Plaque rupture in most cases, plaque erosion uncommonly, and calcified nodule rarely have been demonstrated to be the main mechanisms underlying acute coronary thrombosis in both ex vivo and in vivo studies. In the setting of ACS, high-resolution intravascular imaging with OCT can characterize plaque pathology at the time of intervention in order to better understand the etiology of ACS and develop personalized treatment strategies leading to improved long-term outcomes. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is another rare but important cause of ACS with an incidence of 0.1 to 2.1%. While diagnostic accuracy of angiography for SCAD is limited, OCT can provide substantial insights into the morphologic features of the condition. Finally, OCT allows detailed in vivo examination of the morphologic characteristics of coronary arteries in patients with coronary spasm (CS), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of an acute coronary event.

Keywords

Acute coronary syndrome Sudden coronary death Myocardial infarction Plaque rupture Plaque erosion Coronary thrombosis Spontaneous coronary artery dissection Systemic lupus erythematous Coronary spasm Culprit lesion Fibrous cap Thrombus True and false lumen Intramural hematoma 

Supplementary material

Video 2.1

OCT pullback of plaque rupture followed by thrombotic occlusion (Fig. 2.1) (AVI 41020 kb)

Video 2.2

OCT pullback of plaque rupture in unstable angina pectoris (Case 2, Fig. 2.5) (AVI 52633 kb)

Video 2.3

OCT pullback of plaque rupture in unstable angina pectoris (Case 2, Fig. 2.6) (AVI 55229 kb)

Video 2.4

OCT pullback of ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by plaque rupture and total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (Case 3, Fig. 2.7) (AVI 26147 kb)

Video 2.5

OCT pullback of ST-elevation myocardial infarction caused by plaque rupture and total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (Case 3, Fig. 2.8) (AVI 25799 kb)

Video 2.6

OCT pullback of ST-elevation myocardial infarction arising from plaque erosion: acute coronary event with intact fibrous cap (Case 4, Fig. 2.9) (AVI 30763 kb)

Video 2.7

OCT pullback of plaque erosion in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (Case 5, Fig. 2.11) (AVI 32061 kb)

Video 2.8

OCT pullback of probable plaque erosion in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (Case 7, Fig. 2.13) (AVI 32525 kb)

Video 2.9

OCT pullback of unstable angina in a young patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (Case 7, Fig. 2.14) (AVI 39839 kb)

Video 2.10

OCT pullback of spontaneous coronary vasospasm (Case 8, Fig. 2.16) (AVI 32736 kb)

Video 2.11

OCT pullback of postpartum spontaneous coronary artery dissection (Case 10, Fig. 2.17) (AVI 32332 kb)

Video 2.12

OCT pullback of postpartum spontaneous coronary artery dissection (Case 10, Fig. 2.18) (AVI 34207 kb)

Video 2.13

OCT pullback of coronary intramural hematoma in unstable angina pectoris (Case 10, Fig. 2.19) (AVI 41236 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annapoorna Kini
    • 1
  • Jagat Narula
    • 2
  • Yuliya Vengrenyuk
    • 3
  • Samin Sharma
    • 4
  1. 1.Director, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Director, Structural Heart Intervention Program, Director, Interventional Cardiology Fellowship Program, Zena and Michael A. Wiener Professor of MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Director, Intravascular Imaging Core Laboratory, Instructor, Department of MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Philip J. and Harriet L. Goodhart Chair in Cardiology, Chief of Cardiology, Mount Sinai St. Luke’s Hospital, Professor of Medicine and Radiology, Associate Dean, Arnhold Institute for Global HealthIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Director, Clinical and Interventional Cardiology, President, Mount Sinai Heart Network, Dean, International Clinical Affiliations, Anandi Lal Sharma Professor of MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA

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