Advertisement

The Role of Arachnoid Veils in Chiari Malformation Associated with Syringomyelia

  • Pasquale Ciappetta
  • Francesco Signorelli
  • Massimiliano Visocchi
Chapter
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 125)

Abstract

Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), or hindbrain herniation syndrome, has traditionally been defined as a dislocation of the cerebellar tonsils 5 mm or more below the foramen magnum on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [1, 2]. An association of this anomaly with syringomyelia is observed in 45–68% of patients [3, 4].

References

  1. 1.
    Menezes AH, Smoker WRK, Dyste GN. Syringomyelia, Chiari malformations and hydromyelia. In: Youmans JR, editor. Youman’s neurological surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990. p. 1421–59.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Milhorat TH, Chou MW, Trinidad EM, Kula RW, Mandell M, Wolpert C, et al. Chiari I malformation redefined: clinical and radiographic findings for 364 symptomatic patients. Neurosurgery. 1999;44:1005–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Menezes AH, Greenlee JDW, Donovan KA. Honored guest presentation: lifetime experiences and where we are going: Chiari I with syringohydromyelia—controversies and development of decision trees. Clin Neurosurg. 2005;52:297–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greenlee J, Garell PC, Stence N, Menezes AH. Comprehensive approach to Chiari malformation in pediatric patients. Neurosurg Focus. 1999;6:E6. Article 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Milhorat TH, Bolognese OA, Nishikawa M, Francomano CA, McDonnell NB, et al. Association of Chiari malformation type I and tethered cord syndrome: preliminary results of sectioning filum terminale. Surg Neurol. 2009;72:20–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nishikawa M, Sakamoto H, Hakuba A, Nakanishi N, Inoue Y. Pathogenesis of Chiari malformation: a morphometric study of the posterior cranial fossa. J Neurosurg. 1997;86:40–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chiari H. Über Veränderungen des Kleinhirns in folge von Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1891;17:1172–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee M, Rezai AR, Wisoff JH. Acquired Chiari-I malformation and hydromyelia secondary to a giant craniopharyngioma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1995;22:251–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morioka T, Shono T, Nishio S, Yoshida K, Hasui K, Fukui M. Acquired Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia associated with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1995;83:556–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Atkinson JL, Weinshenker BG, Miller GM, Piegras DG, Mokri B. Acquired Chiari I malformation secondary to spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage and chronic intracranial hypotension syndrome in seven cases. J Neurosurg. 1998;88:237–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Milhorat TH, Bolognese PA, Nishikawa M, McDonnell NB, Francomano CA. Syndrome of occipitoatlantoaxial hypermobility, cranial settling, and Chiari malformation type I in patients with hereditary disorders of connective tissue. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:601–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cinalli G, Spennato P, Sainte-Rose C, Arnaud E, Aliberti F, Brunnelle F, et al. Chiari malformation in craniosynostosis. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:889–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lemar HJ Jr, Perloff JJ, Merenich JA. Symptomatic Chiari-I malformation in a patient with acromegaly. South Med J. 1994;87:284–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Menezes AH. Current opinions for treatment of symptomatic hindbrain herniation or Chiari type I malformation. World Neurosurg. 2011;75:226–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menezes AH. Craniovertebral junction abnormalities with hindbrain herniation and syringomyelia: regression of syringomyelia after removal of ventral craniovertebral junction compression. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:301–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barr ML. Observations on the foramen of Magendie in a series of human brains. Brain. 1948;71:281–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bidzinski J. Pathological findings in suboccipital decompression in 63 patients with syringomyelia. Acta Neurochir. 1988;43:26–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gardner WJ. Hydrodynamic mechanism of syringomyelia: its relationship to myelocele. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1965;28:247–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huang YC, Chang CN, Chuang HL, et al. Membranous obstruction of the fourth ventricle outlet. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2001;35:43–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Saez RJ, Onofrio BM, Yanagihara T. Experience with Arnold-Chiari malformation, 1960 to 1970. J Neurosurg. 1976;45:416–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stovner LJ, Rink P. Syringomyelia in Chiari malformation: relation to extent of cerebellar tissue herniation. Neurosurgery. 1992;31:913–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tubbs RS, McGirt MJ, Oakes WJ. Surgical experience with 130 pediatric patients with Chiari I malformations. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:291–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gardner W, Angel J. The mechanism of syringomyelia and its surgical correction. Clin Neurosurg. 1957;6:131–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rai SK, Rai PS. Volume change theory for syringomyelia: a new perspective. Asian J Neurosurg. 2015;10(4):245–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tubbs RS, Smyth MD, Wellons JC, Oakes WJ. Arachnoid veils and the Chiari I malformation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2004;100(5 Suppl):465–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cotes C, Bonfante E, Lazor J, Jadhav S, Caldas M, Swischuk L, et al. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies. Neuroradiol J. 2015;28(3):238–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rifkinson-Mann S, Sachdev VP, Huang YP. Congenital fourth ventricular midline outlet obstruction. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 1987;67:595–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Iskandar BJ, Hedlund GL, Grabb PA, et al. The resolution of syringohydromyelia without hindbrain herniation after posterior fossa decompression. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:212–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tubbs RS, Elton S, Grabb P, et al. Analysis of the posterior fossa in children with the Chiari 0 malformation. Neurosurgery. 2001;48:1050–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hammond CJ, Chitnavis B, Penny CC, et al. Dandy–Walker complex and syringomyelia in an adult: case report and discussion. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:191–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasquale Ciappetta
    • 1
  • Francesco Signorelli
    • 2
  • Massimiliano Visocchi
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Bari, Medical School, Section of Neurological SurgeryBariItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University School of MedicineRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations