Advertisement

Oil, Ethnicism and Sustainable National Integration in Contemporary Nigeria

  • Abosede Omowumi Babatunde
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter examines the nexus between oil, ethnic nationalism and the quest for national integration and political stability in Nigeria. This chapter argues that the competition for the control of oil resources has been a major causal factor in the rise of ethnic nationalism, which is further heightened by the state’s coercive conflict management strategies and poses grave implications for Nigeria’s quest for national integration. In conclusion, the fundamentalist religious movements or ethnic nationalists may be likely draw on a mix of cultural symbols as well as those of economic inequality to express their deep-seated frustration and desire, often demonstrated forcefully, for equity, fairness and good governance that can usher in the much-anticipated dividends of democracy for the marginalised masses.

References

  1. Abdullahi, A. A., & Saka, L. (2007). Ethno-religious and political conflicts: Threat to Nigeria nascent democracy. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 9(3), 21–36.Google Scholar
  2. Abiodun, F. (2012). Democracy and national identities: The travails of national national security in Nigeria. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 9(II), 126–140.Google Scholar
  3. Adejumobi, S. (1996). Citizenship, rights, and the problem of conflicts and civil wars in Africa. Human Rights Quarterly, 23, 148–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Afolayan, A. (2002). Political concepts and ideologies: Nationalism and the nation state. Ibadan: Hope Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Ake, C. (1978). Revolutionary pressures in Africa. London: Zed Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ake, C. (2000). The feasibility of democracy in Africa. Dakar Senegal: Codesria.Google Scholar
  7. Akinwumi, O. (2004). Crises and conflicts in Nigeria: A political history since 1960s. Germany: Die Deutsche Bibliothek (e) LITVERLAG Munster.Google Scholar
  8. Aluko, M. A. O., & Ajani, O. A. (2009). Ethnic nationalism and the Nigerian democratic experience in the fourth republic. Afrian Research Review, 3(1), 483–499.Google Scholar
  9. Attoh, F., & Soyombo, O. (2011). The politics of ethnic balancing in Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3(2), 40–44.Google Scholar
  10. Babatunde, A. O. (2010). Managing environmental conflict in the oil-producing areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. In I. O. Albert & I. O. Oloyede (Eds.), Dynamics of peace processes (pp. 487–500). Ilorin: Centre for Peace and Strategic Studies University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  11. Babawale, T. (1999). Military governance as crisis of legitimation of the Nigerian state. In A. Ninalowo (Ed.), Crises of legitimation (pp. 99–123). Lagos: Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Babawale, T. (2006). Nigerian in the crises of governance and development: A retrospective and prospective analysis of selected issues and events. Lagos: Political and Administrative Resources Center (PARC).Google Scholar
  13. Burr, V. (2003). Social constructionism (p. 6). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Coleman, J. S. (1958). Nigeria background to nationalism. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California press.Google Scholar
  15. Constitutional Rights Project. (1999). Land, oil and human rights in Nigeria’s Delta region. Lagos: CRP.Google Scholar
  16. Cosmas, E. (2005, August 2). Senate, U.S Military Chief Discuss Intelligence Report. Daily Champion.Google Scholar
  17. Duruji, M. M. (2010, March). Democracy and the challenge of ethno-nationalism in Nigeria’s fourth republic: Interrogating institutional mechanics. Journal of Peace, Conflict and Development, (15), 92–108.Google Scholar
  18. Egwaikhide, F. O., & Aregbeyen, O. (1999). Oil production externalities in the Niger Delta: Is fiscal solution feasible? In fiscal federalism and Nigeria’s economic development. Selected papers presented at the Annual Conference. The Nigeria Economic Society, Department of Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  19. Ekanola, A. B. (2006, Fall). National integration and the survival of Nigeria in the 21st century. The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 31(3), 279–293.Google Scholar
  20. Eteng, I. (2004). Ethnicity and ethno class relationship: Crisis of Nigeria’s enduring national question. In D. Oni et al. (Eds.), Essay on Nigeria and globalization (p. 46). Lagos: CBAAC.Google Scholar
  21. Geertz, C. (1994). Primordial and civic ties. In Hutchinson & Smith (Eds.), Nationalism (p. 31). London: OUPress.Google Scholar
  22. Guyer, J. (1994). Representation without taxation: An essay on Democracy in rural Nigeria: 1952–1990. CASS Occasional Monograph No. 3, CASS, Port-Harcourt.Google Scholar
  23. Hansen, E. (1987). Africa: Perspectives on the peace and development (pp. 57–58). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  24. Human Rights Watch. (2007, October). Criminal politics: Violence, “godfathers” and corruption in Nigeria. (Vol. 19, No. 16(A)). New York: HRW.Google Scholar
  25. Human Rights Watch. (2008, March). Politics as war: The human rights impact and causes of post-election violence in rivers state, Nigeria. (Vol. 20, No. 3(A)). New York: HRW.Google Scholar
  26. Human Rights Watch. (2012, October). Spiraling violence: Boko Haram attacks and security force abuses in Nigeria. New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  27. Ihonvbere, J. (2001). Dismantling the Leviathian: Constitutionalism and the national question in Nigeria. A Paper delivered at the 12th Convocation Lecture of the Lagos State University.Google Scholar
  28. Ihonvbore, J. O. (1994). The state and environmental degradation in Nigeria: A study of the 1988 toxic dump in Koko. Journal of Environmental Systems, 23, 3.Google Scholar
  29. Iwayemi, A. (2006). Nigeria’s oil wealth: The challenges of sustainable development in a non-renewable natural resources dependent economy. The Postgraduate School University of Ibadan, 31st Interdisciplinary research discourse.Google Scholar
  30. Jega, A. (2003). Democracy, economic crisis and conflicts: The Nigerian experience. Keynote Address, 22nd Nigeria Political Science Association (NPSA) National Conference, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, January 13–15.Google Scholar
  31. Joireman, S. F. (2003). Nationalism and political identity (p. 12). New York: Continuum Press.Google Scholar
  32. Joseph, R. (1991). Democracy and prebendal politics in Nigeria: The rise and fall of the second republic. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.Google Scholar
  33. Mahmudat, M. O. (2010). Intra-class struggle in Nigeria. Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research, 2(7), 88–95.Google Scholar
  34. Maier, K. (2000). This house has fallen: Nigeria in crisis. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  35. Mustapha, A. R. (2003). Ethnic minority groups in Nigeria: Current situation and major problems. United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Working Group on Minorities, Ninth session, 12–16 May.Google Scholar
  36. Nnoli, O. (Ed.). (1998). Ethnic conflicts in Africa. Dakar Senegal: Codesria Book Series.Google Scholar
  37. Obi, C. (1998). The impact of oil on Nigeria’s revenue allocation system problems and prospects for national reconstruction. In K. Amuwo, A. A. B. Adigun, R. T. Suberu, & G. Herault (Eds.), Federalism and political restructuring in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.Google Scholar
  38. Obi, C. (2002). Oil and the minority question. In M. Abubakah (Ed.), The national question in Nigeria: Comparative perspectives. Aldershot: Ashagate.Google Scholar
  39. Okonta, I., & Douglas, O. (2001). Where cultures feasts: Forty years of shell in the Niger Delta. Benin: ERA/FOEN.Google Scholar
  40. Olukoju, A. (1997). Nigeria: A historical review. In F. U. Okafor (Ed.), New strategies for curbing ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria (pp. 12–13). Enugu: Fourth Dimension.Google Scholar
  41. Olurode, L. (Ed.). (1999). Nigeria: People and culture. Lagos: Rebonik Publications.Google Scholar
  42. Onimode, B. (2001). Fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Options for the 21st century (Vol. 1). Research Report. Ibadan.Google Scholar
  43. Onosode, G. (2003). Environmental issues and the challenges of the Niger Delta: Perspectives from the Niger Delta. Environmental Survey Process, Yaba. Lagos: The CIBN Press.Google Scholar
  44. Onuoha, B. (1999). Political power blocs and legitimation crisis. In A. Ninalowo (Ed.), Crisis of legitimation (pp. 35–59). Lagos: Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  45. Osaghae, E. E. (1995). Structural adjustment and ethnicity in Nigeria. Upsalla: Nordiska Afrikan Institute.Google Scholar
  46. Osaghae, E. E., Ikelegbe, A., Olarinmoye, O. O., & Okhomina, S. I. (2011). Youth militias, self determination and resource control struggles in the Niger-delta region of Nigeria. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA). Avenue Dakar, Senegal. Retrieved from www.codesria.org
  47. Osaghae, E. E., & Suberu, R. T. (2005). A history of identities, violence and stability in Nigeria. CRISE. Working Paper. University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  48. Paden, J. (2008). Faith and politics in Nigeria: Nigeria as pivotal state in the muslim world. Washington, DC: United State Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  49. Salamone, F. A. (1997). Ethnicity and Nigeria since the end of the civil war. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Soremekun, K. (1995). Oil and the democratic imperative in Nigeria. In D. Olowu (Ed.), Governance and democratization in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.Google Scholar
  51. Soremekun, K., & Obi, C. (1993). Oil and the national question. In NES (Ed.), The national question and economic development in Nigeria (pp. 209–231). Nigerian Economic Society Annual Conference.Google Scholar
  52. Soyombo, O., & Attoh, F. (2009). Trend of political crime and violence in Nigeria. In R. I. Salawu, A. Akiade, & S. O. Adetona (Eds.), Curbing political violence in Nigeria: The role of security profession. Lagos: Institute of Security Nigeria.Google Scholar
  53. Suberu, R. T. (2001). Federalism and ethnic conflict in Nigeria. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abosede Omowumi Babatunde
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Peace and Strategic StudiesUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria

Personalised recommendations