3D printing is generating interest in many fields, for example, design, engineering, and medicine. The surgical fields in medicine have taken the lead in progress, especially in orthopedics, maxillofacial reconstruction, and neurosurgery (Eltorai et al. 2015; Yang et al. 2015; Mavili et al. 2007; Müller et al. 2003; McGurk et al. 1997). In particular, 3D printing has contributed greatly to the development of personalized medicine. 3D printing has emerged to play a unique role in the fabrication of personalized implants as well as in surgical planning and simulation, assisting in the consent process, and providing an educational tool for medical students and residents (Mavili et al. 2007; Müller et al. 2003; McGurk et al. 1997; Liew et al. 2015; Jones et al. 2016; Naftulin et al. 2015; Rengier et al. 2010; Webb 2000). This is based on the fact that reasonably complex 3D-printed models can be created in a short period of time with a good cost efficiency.
Navigated craniotomy for cerebral glioma (WMV 38,037 kb)
Navigated endoscopic third ventriculostomy and pineal biopsy (MP4 34,179 kb)
Anterior and posterior decompression of cervical spine with instrumentation (MP4 121,781 kb)
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