Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Pot-Pollen Produced by Eight Meliponine Species from Venezuela
Fresh Venezuelan pot-pollen from Apure, Amazonas, Bolívar, and Mérida produced by eight meliponine species of Frieseomelitta, Melipona, and Tetragonisca was characterized. The antibacterial activity of pot-pollen ethanolic extracts was measured in Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), using agar well diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. In both methods, all pot-pollen ethanolic extracts were active against at least four of the bacterial strains tested, showing an antibacterial activity related to stingless bee species. Melipona favosa, Melipona lateralis kangarumensis, Melipona paraensis, and Tetragonisca angustula pot-pollen ethanolic extracts had the widest inhibition halos and the lowest MIC values (between 2.5% and 5.0%), indicating the highest antibacterial activities. Differences in antibacterial activities of pot-pollen produced by the eight species of stingless bees were possibly due to difference in botanical and geographical origin. Escherichia coli was the bacterium more resistant to pot-pollen extracts – ten samples of Melipona eburnea, Melipona paraensis, and Tetragonisca angustula. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of pot-pollen produced by eight stingless bee species of several regions of Venezuela increases the added value of these products for nutritional and functional uses.
To the memory of Professor João MF Camargo, Biology Departement, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, for the identification of the Venezuelan stingless bees. To stingless bee keepers from southern Venezuela to provide their pot-pollen. To project FA-127-93B from Council for the Scientific, Humanistic and Technological Development at Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela, for supporting field work needed to collect the pot-pollen in Venezuela. To the support of ZG-AVA-FA-01-98-01 from the Council of Development of Scientific, Humanistic, Technological and Artistic, at Universidad de Los Andes, to the Group Apitherapy and Bioactivity. To referees for their timely comments. To Dr. D.W. Roubik for the careful English proofreading.
- Boorn KL, Khor YY, Sweetman E, Tan F, Heard TA, Hammer KA. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of honey from the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria determined by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill methodology Journal of Applied Microbiology 108: 1534-1543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campos M, Cunha A, Markham K. 1998. Inhibition of virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures, by flavonoids isolated from bee-pollen: Possible structure-activity relationships. pp. In: Polyphenol Communications 98. Proceedings of the XIX International Conference on Polyphenols, Lille, France, 1–4 September. Groupe Polyphenols; Bordeaux, France. pp.Google Scholar
- Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2009. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard. CLSI document M07-A8, Eighth edition, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA. pp. 12-45.Google Scholar
- da Cunha MG, Franchin M, de Carvalho Galvão LC, de Ruiz AL, de Carvalho JE, Ikegaki M, de Alencar SM, Koo H, Rosalen PL. 2013. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 23: 1-9.Google Scholar
- Grajek W. 2007. Antioxidants in Food. WNT: Warsaw, Poland. pp. 258–259.Google Scholar
- Haro A, López-Aliaga I, Lisbona F, Barrionuevo M, Alférez MJ, Campos MS. 2000. Beneficial effect of pollen and/or propolis on the metabolism of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in rats with nutritional ferropenic anemia. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 5715–5722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knazovicka V, Melich M, Kacaniova M, Fikselova M, Hascik P, Chlebo R. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of selected bee products. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica 12: 280–285.Google Scholar
- Liberio SA, Pereira AL, Dutra RP, Reis AS, Araújo MJ, Mattar NS, Silva LA, Ribeiro MN, Nascimento FR, Guerra RN, Monteiro-Neto V. 2011. Antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens and immunomodulatory effects and toxicity of geopropolis produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 108: 12-33.Google Scholar
- Massaro CF, Katouli M, Grkovic T, Vu H, Quinn RJ, Heard TA, Carvalho C, Manley-Harris M, Wallace HM, Brooks P. 2014. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) Fitoterapia 95: 247-257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Michener CD. 2013. The Meliponini. pp. 3-17. In: Vit P, Pedro SRM, Roubik D. Pot-honey. A legacy of stingless bees. Springer, New York, USA. 654 pp.Google Scholar
- Monserrate Y. 2015. Valoración in vitro del potencial antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de polen de Apis mellifera y de Tetragonisca angustula, en busca de posibles usos terapéuticos. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia Bogotá, Colombia. pp 25-65.Google Scholar
- Nishio EK, Ribeiro JM, Oliveira AG, Andrade CG, Proni EA, Kobayashi RK, Nakazato G. 2016. Antibacterial synergic effect of honey from two stingless bees: Scaptotrigona bipunctata Lepeletier, 1836, and S. postica Latreille, 1807. Scientific Reports doi: 10.1038/srep21641.