Advertisement

Crop Pollination by Stingless Bees

  • Virginia Meléndez Ramírez
  • Ricardo Ayala
  • Hugo Delfín González
Chapter

Abstract

The stingless bees are very diverse in the tropics and subtropics of the world, consisting of nearly 600 species. Their morphological, biological, and behavioral traits make many of them efficient crop pollinators. Currently, field research has documented stingless bees as field crop pollinators in 12 tropical countries worldwide. More than 25 species are known to contribute significantly to pollination in 14 economically important crops. The most common stingless bee species belong to Melipona and/or some of the genus previously including in Trigona genus. Until now studies of stingless bee pollination in enclosed or greenhouse conditions have been conducted in eight countries and focused on ten crops. Fourteen stingless bee species have been used most often in these studies, mostly from the genera Melipona, Nannotrigona, Scaptotrigona, and Trigona. In most of these studies, the evaluated stingless bee species were found to be efficient crop pollinators both in field crops and greenhouses. The use of local native stingless bees as pollinators is promising since in some instances they are more efficient than honeybees; it avoids disease propagation between introduced and native species and reduces the risk of the establishment of exotic species and the displacement of native ones. It is clear that investigation is needed for conservation and management of stingless bees and the importance of habitat management to preserve local stingless bee populations.

References

  1. Absy ML, Kerr WE. 1977. Algumas plantas visitadas para obtencão de pólen por operariãs de Melipona seminigra merrillae em Manaus. Acta Amazonica 7: 309-315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Absy ML, Camargo JMF, Kerr WE, de A Miranda IP. 1984. Especies de plantas visitadas por Meliponinae (Hymenoptera; Apoidea), para coleta de pólen na regiao do médio Amazonas. Revista Brasileira de Biología 44: 227-237.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson DL, Sedgley M, Short JRT, Allwood AJ. 1982. Insect pollination of mango in Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 33: 541-548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araújo ED, Costa M, Chaud-Netto J, Fowler HG. 2004. Body size and flight distance in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Meliponini): inference of flight range and possible ecological implications. Brazil Journal of Biology 64: 563-568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asiko AG. 2004. The effect of total visitation time and number of visits by pollinators (Plebeia sp and Apis mellifera mellifera) on the strawberry. MSc Thesis, Utrecht University; Utrecht, The Netherlands. 156 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Ayala R, Griswold T y Yanega D. 1996. Apoidea (Hymenoptera). pp. 423-464. In: Llorente-Bousquets J, Garcia A and González E, eds. Biodiversidad, taxonomía y biogeografía de artrópodos de México: Hacia una síntesis de su conocimiento Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) - Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO); Distrito Federal, México. 660 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Ayala R. 1999. Revisión de las abejas sin aguijón de México (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). Folia Entomológica Mexicana 106: 1-123.Google Scholar
  8. Ayala R. 2004. Fauna de abejas silvestres (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). pp 193-219. In: Garcia-Aldrete AN, Ayala R, eds. Artrópodos de Chamela. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México; Distrito Federal, México. 227 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Ayala R, González VH y Engel MS. 2013. Mexican Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Diversity, Distribution, and Indigenous Knowledge. pp. 135-152. In: Vit P, Silvia RMP, Roubik D, eds. Pot honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Springer; New York. 654 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Banda HJ, Paxton RJ. 1991. Pollination of greenhouse tomatoes by bees. Acta Horticola 288: 194-198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biesmeijer JC, Slaa EJ. 2006. The structure of eusocial bee assemblages in Brazil. Apidologie 37: 240-258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bomfim I, Bezerra De MA, Nunes AC, De Aragão FAS, Freitas BM. 2014. Adaptive and foraging behavior of two stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) in greenhouse mini watermelon pollination. Sociobiology 61: 502-509.Google Scholar
  13. Brosi BJ. 2009. The complex responses of social stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) to tropical deforestation. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 1830-1837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown JC, Albrecht C. 2001. The effect of tropical deforestation on stingless bees of the genus Melipona (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in central Rondonia, Brazil. Journal of Biogeography 28: 623-634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buchmann SL. 1983. Buzz Pollination in Angiosperms. 73-113 pp. In: Jones CE, Little RJ, eds. Handbook of Experimental Pollination Biology, Van Nostrand Reinhold; New York. USA. 558 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Can-Alonso C, Quezada-Euán JJG, Xiu-Ancona P, Moo-Valle H, Valdovinos-Nuñez GR, Medina-Peralta S. 2005. Pollination of “criollo’ avocados (Persea americana) and the behaviour of associated bees in subtropical Mexico, Journal of Apicultural Research 44: 3-8.Google Scholar
  17. Cauich O, Quezada-Euán JJG, Macias-Macias JO, Reyes Oregel V, Medina- Peralta S, Parra. 2004. Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in subtropical México. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 475-481.Google Scholar
  18. Cahuich O, Quezada-Euan JJG, Meléndez RV, Valdovinos-Nuñez O, Moo-Valle H. 2006. Pollination of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) and production in enclosures using stingless bee Nannotrigona perilampoides. Journal of Apicultural Research. 45: 125-130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cortopassi-Laurino M, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL, Roubik DW, Dollin A, Heard T, Aguilar, I, Venturieri GC, Eardley C, Nogueira NP. 2006. Global meliponiculture: challenges and opportunities. Apidologie 37: 275-292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cortopassi-Laurino M, Knoll FRN, Ribeiro MF, van Heemert C, de Ruijter A. 1991. Food plant preferences of Friesella schrottkyi. Acta Horticola 288: 382–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cruz DO, Freitas BM, Silva LA, Silva SEM, Bomfim IGA. 2005. Use of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida to pollinate sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) flowers in greenhouse. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 40: 1197-1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Luca PA, Vallejo-Marıín M. 2013. What’s the ‘buzz’ about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 16: 1-7.Google Scholar
  23. Eckles MA, Roubik DW, Nieh JC. 2012. A stingless bee can use visual odometry to estimate both height and distance. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 3155-3160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Eka PR, Dana PA, and Kinasih I. 2014. Application of Asiatic Honey Bees (Apis cerana) and Stingless Bees (Trigona laeviceps) as Pollinator Agents of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at Local Indonesia Farm System. Psyche 2014: 1-5.,  http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/687979 Google Scholar
  25. Engel MS, Dingemans-Bakels F. 1980. Nectar and pollen resources for stingless bees (Meliponinae, Hymenoptera) in Surinam (South America). Apidologie 11: 341-350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eickwort GC, Ginsberg HS. 1980. Foraging and mating behavior in Apoidea. Annual Review of Entomology 25: 421-446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Falcão MA, Lleras E. 1980. Aspectos fenológicos, ecológicos e de produtividade do mapati (Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart.). Acta Amazonica 10: 711-724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO. 2014. Principios y avances sobre polinización como servicio ambiental para la agricultura sostenible en países de Latinoamérica y el caribe. Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura; Santiago de Chile, Chile. 55 pp.Google Scholar
  29. FAO. 2015. Crops, weeds and pollinators. Understanding ecological interaction for better management. Biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural production systems. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 96 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Free JB. 1970. Insect pollination of crops. Academic Press; London, UK. 544 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Friedrich G, Barth MH, Stefan J. 2008. Signals and cues in the recruitment behavior of stingless bees (Meliponini). Journal of Comparative Physiology 194: 313-327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grajales CJ, Meléndez RV, Cruz LL, Sánchez GD. 2013. Native bees in blooming orange (Citrus sinensis) and lemon (C. limon) orchards in Yucatán, Mexico. Acta Zoológica Mexicana. Nueva serie. 29: 437-440.Google Scholar
  33. Greco MK, Spooner HRN, Beattie AGAC, Barchia I, Holford P. 2011. Australian stingless bees improve greenhouse Capsicum production. Journal of Apicultural Research 50: 102-115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goulson D. 2003. Effects of introduced bees on native ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34: 1-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heard TA, Exley EM. 1994. Diversity, abundance, and distribution of insect visitors to macadamia flowers. Environonmental Entomology 23: 91-100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Heard TA. 1999. The role of stingless bees in crop pollination. Annual Review of Entomology 44: 183-206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Heard TA. 2016. Alternative pollinators and the global pollination crisis. Available at https://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/447340/GU-alternative-pollinators.pdf Google Scholar
  38. Heithaus ER. 1979. Flower visitation records and resource overlap of bees and wasps in Northwest Costa Rica. Brenesia 16: 9-52.Google Scholar
  39. IPBES. 2016. The assessment report on Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production. Summary for policy makers. Available at http://www.ipbes.net/sites/default/files/downloads/pdf/SPM_Deliverable_3a_Pollination.pdf Google Scholar
  40. Ish-Am G, Barrientos-Priego F, Castañeda-Vildozola A, Gazit S. 1999. Avocado (Persea Americana Mill.) pollinators in its region of origin, Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura 5: 137-143.Google Scholar
  41. Iwama S, Melhem TS. 1979. The pollen spectrum of the honey of Tetragonisca angustula angustula Latreille (Apidae, Meliponinae). Apidologie 10: 275-295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hedström I. 1986. Pollen carriers of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) in Costa Rica and Ecuador (Neotropical region). Revista de Biología Tropical. 34: 297-301.Google Scholar
  43. Hrncir M, Jarau S, Barth FG. 2016. Stingless bees (Meliponini): senses and behavior. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 202: 597–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jarau S, Hrncir M, Schmidt VM, Zucchi R, Barth FG. 2003. Effectiveness of recruitment behavior in stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini). Insectes Sociaux 20: 365-374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kakutani T, Inoue T, Tezuka T, Maeta Y. 1993. Pollination of strawberry by the stingless bee, Trigona minangkabau, and the honey bee, Apis mellifera: an experimental study of fertilization efficiency. Researches on Population Ecology 35: 95-111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kearns CA, Inouye DW, Waser NM. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83-112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klein AM, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. 2003a. Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 270: 955-961.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Klein AM, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. 2003b. Pollination of Coffea canephora in relation to local and regional agroforestry management. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 837-845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein AM, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke, T. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. http://dx.doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3721Google Scholar
  50. Kiatoko N, Raina SK, Muli E, Mueke J. 2014. Enhancement of fruit quality in Capsicum annum through pollination by Hypotrigona gribodoi in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Entomological Science 17: 106-110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lalama K. 2001. Pollination effectiveness and efficiency of the stingless bee Plebeia sp. and the honey bee Apis mellifera on strawberry Fragaria × ananassa in a greenhouse. MSc Thesis, Utrecht University; Utrecht, The Netherlands. 168 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Lever JJ, Nes, EH, Scheffer M, Bascompte J. 2014. The sudden collapse of pollinator communities. Ecology Letters 17: 350-359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lobreau-Callen D, Thomas Ale, Darchen B, Darchen R. 1990. Quelques facteurs d´eterminant le comportement de butinage d’ Hypotrigona pothieri (Trigonini) dans la végétation de Cóte-d’Ivoire. Apidologie 21: 69-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maeta Y, Tezuka T, Nadano H, Suzuki K. 1992. Utilization of the Brazilian stingless bee, Nannotrigona testaceicornis, as a pollinator of strawberries. Honey bee Science 13: 71-78.Google Scholar
  55. Malagodi-Braga KS, Kleinert AMP. 2004. Could Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Apinae, Meliponini) be used as strawberry pollinator in greenhouses? Australian Journal Agriculchure Research 55: 771-773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meeuwsen FJAJ. 2000. Stingless bees for pollination purposes in greenhouses. pp. 143-147. In: Sommeijer MJ, Ruijter A, eds. Insect Pollination in Greenhouses: Proceedings Specialists’ Meeting; Soesterberg, The Netherlands. 220 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Maues MM, Venturieri GC. 1995. Pollination biology of anatto and its pollinators in Amazon area. Honey bee Science 16: 27-30.Google Scholar
  58. McGregor SE. 1976. Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. Agricultural Research Service; Washington. USA. 411 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Masís CE, Lezama HJ. 1991. Estudio preliminar sobre insectos polinizadores de macadamia en Costa Rica. Turrialba 41: 520–523.Google Scholar
  60. Meléndez RV. 1997. Polinización y biodiversidad de abejas nativas asociadas a cultivos hotícolas en el estado de Yucatán, México. Tesis de maestría. Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, México. 90 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Meléndez RV, Parra TV, Echazarreta CM, Magaña RS. 2000. Use of native bees and honey bees in hoticultural crops of Cucurbita moschata in Yucatan, Mexico. Management and diversity. pp. 65-70. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Costa Rica. International Bee Research Association, Cardiff, UK. 226 pp.Google Scholar
  62. Meléndez RV, Magaña RS, Parra TV, Ayala BR, Navarro AJ. 2002. Diversity of native bee visitor of cucurbit crops (Cucurbitaceae) in Yucatán, México. Journal of Insect Conservation. 6: 135-147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meléndez RV, Parra TV, Kevan PG, Ramirez MI, Harries H, Fernandez BM, Zizumbo VD. 2004. Mixed mating strategies and pollination by insects and wind in coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae)): importance in production and selection. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 6: 155-163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meléndez RV, Meneses CL, Kevan PG. 2013. Effects of human disturbance and habitat fragmentation on stingless bees. pp. 269-282. In: Vit P, Silvia RMP, Roubik D, eds. Pot honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Springer; New York, USA. 654 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Meléndez RV, Ayala R y Delfín GH. 2016. Temporal variation in native bee diversity in the tropical sub-deciduous forest of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science 9: 718- 735.Google Scholar
  66. Meneses CL, Meléndez RV, Parra TV, Navarro AJ. 2010. Bee diversity in fragmented landscape of the Mexican Neotropic. Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 323-334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Michener CD. 1974. The social behavior of the bees. A comparative study. Harvard University Press; Cambridge, Massachusets, USA. 404 pp.Google Scholar
  68. Michener CD. 2007. The bees of the world, 2nd edition. Johns Hopkins University Press; Baltimore, MD, USA. 953 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Michener CD. 2013. The Meliponini. pp. 3-18. In: Vit P, Silvia RMP, Roubik D, eds. Pot honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Springer; New York, USA. 654 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Morales C. 2007. Introducción de abejorros (Bombus) no nativos: causas, consecuencias ecológicas y perspectives. Ecología Austral 17: 51-65.Google Scholar
  71. Nicodemo D, Braga ME, De Jong D, Nogueira CRH. 2013. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina 34: 3625-3634.Google Scholar
  72. Nieh JC, 2004. Recruitment communication in stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini). Apidologie 35: 159-182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nieh JC, Roubik DW. 1995. A stingless bee (Melipona panamica) indicates food location without using a scent trail. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 37: 63-70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nunes-Silva P, Hrncir M, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL. 2010. A polinização por vibração. Oecologia Australis 14: 140-151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nunes-Silva P., Hrncir M, Da Silva CI, Roldão YS, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL. 2013. Stingless bees, Melipona fasciculata, as efficient pollinators of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in greenhouses. Apidologie 44: 537-546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Occhiuzzi P. 2000. Stingless bees pollinate greenhouse Capsicum, Aussie Bee 13: 15.Google Scholar
  77. Oliveira CD de, Freitas BM, Da Silva LA, Sarmento da SEM, Abrahão BIG. 2005. Pollination efficiency of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida on greenhouse sweet pepper. Pesquisas Agropecuria Brasileira, Brasilia 40: 1197-1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Toole C. 1993. Diversity of native bees and agroecosystems. pp. 169-96. In: Hymenoptera and Biodiversity. LaSalle J, Gauld ID, eds. The Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International, CABI; Wallingford, UK. 368 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Ollerton J, Winfree R, Tarrant S. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos 120: 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Patricio GB, Campos MJO. 2014. Aspects of Landscape and Pollinators-What is Important to Bee Conservation? Diversity 6:158-175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Palma G, Quezada Euán JJG, Meléndez RV, Irogoyen J, Valdovinos- Nuñez GR, Rejón M. 2008b. Comparative efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides, Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), and mechanical vibration on fruit production of enclosed habanero pepper. Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 132-138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Palma G, Quezada-Euan JJG, Reyes-Oregel V, Meléndez RV, Moo-Valle H. 2008a. Production of greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) using Nannotrigona perilampoides, Bombus impatiens and mechanical vibration (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Applied Entomology 132: 9-85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Peters C, Vasquez A. 1986. Estudios ecológicos de camu-camu (Myrciariadubia) I. Producción de frutas en poblaciones naturales. Acta Amazonica 16-17: 161-174.Google Scholar
  84. Pinkus RM, Parra TV, Meléndez RV. 2005. Floral resources, use and interaction between Apis mellifera and native bees. The Canadian Entomologist 137: 441-449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Potts SG, Biesmeijer JC, Kremen C, Neumann P, Schweiger O, Kunin WE. 2010. Global pollinator declines: Trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 345-353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rasmussen C, Gonzalez VH. 2013. Stingless bees now and in the future. Prologue. In: Vit P, Roubik DW, eds. Stingless bees process honey and pollen in cerumen pots: vi–ix. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioanálisis, Universidad de Los Andes; Mérida, Venezuela; xii+170 pp.Google Scholar
  87. Ricketts TH, Regetz J, Steffan DI, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Bogdanski A, Gemmill Herren B, Greenleaf SS, Klein AM, Mayfield MM, Morandin LA, Ochieng A, Viana BF. 2008. Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns? Ecology Letters 11: 499-515.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Roubik DW. 1992. Ecology and natural history of tropical bees. New York; Cambridge University Press. 514 pp.Google Scholar
  89. Roubik DW. 1995. Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics: Stingless bee colonies for pollination. Agricultural Services Bulletin 118. Food and Agriculture Organization; Rome, Italy. 198 pp.Google Scholar
  90. Roubik DW. 2006. Stingless bee nesting biology. Apidologie 37: 124-143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roubik DW. 2009. Ecological impact on native bees by the invasive Africanized honey bee. Acta Biologica Colombiana 14: 115-124.Google Scholar
  92. Roubik WD, Moreno P. 2013. How to be a bee-botanist using pollen spectra. pp. 295-314. In: Vit P, Silvia RMP, Roubik DW, eds. Pot honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Springer; New York. 654 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Sánchez D, Valdame R. 2013. Stingless Bee Food Location Communication: From the flowers to the honey Pots. pp. 187-200. In: Vit P, Silvia RMP, Roubik D, eds. Pot honey: A legacy of stingless bees. Springer; New York, USA. 654 pp.Google Scholar
  94. Santos SAB dos, Bego LR, Roselino AC. 2004a. Pollination in tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum, by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apinae). pp. 688. Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas. 710 pp.Google Scholar
  95. Santos SAB dos. 2004b. Pollination of cucumber - Cucumis sativus - by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). pp. 689. Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas. 710 pp.Google Scholar
  96. Santos SAB dos, Roselino AC, Hrncir M, Bego LR. 2009. Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Genetics and Molecular Research 8: 751-757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sarto MCL del, Peruquetti RC, Campos LAO. 2005. Evaluation of the neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes. Apiculture and Social Insects 98: 260-266.Google Scholar
  98. Sihag RC. 1995. Pollination, pollinators and pollination modes: ecological and economic importance. pp: 11-19. In: Roubik DW, ed. Pollination of Cultivated Plants in the Tropics. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 118. Food and Agricultural Organization; Rome, Italy. 195 pp.Google Scholar
  99. Simão S, Maranhão ZC. 1959. Os insetos como agentes polinizadores da mangeira. Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz 16: 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Singh G. 1989. Insect pollinators of mango and their role in fruit setting. Acta Horticola 231: 629-632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Slaa EJ, Sanchez CLA, Malagodi BKS, Hofstede FE. 2006. Stingless bees in applied pollination: practice and perspectives. Apidologie 37: 293-315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Slaa EJ, Sánchez LA, Sandí M, Salzar W. 2000a. A scientific note on the use of stingless bees for commercial pollinaton in enclosures, Apidologie 31: 141-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Slaa EJ, Sánchez LA, Sandî M, Salzar W. 2000b. Pollination of an ornamental plant (Salvia farinacea: Labiatae) by two species of stingless bees and Africanised honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), pp. 209-215. In: Sommeijer M.J., Ruijter A. de, eds. Insect Pollination in Greenhouses: Proceedings specialists’ meeting held in Soesterberg, The Netherlands. 220 pp.Google Scholar
  104. Sommeijer MJ, de Bruijn LLM, Meeuwsen F. 2003. Reproductive behaviour of stingless bees: nest departures of non-accepted gynes and nuptial flights in Melipona favosa (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini). Entomologische Berichten 63: 7-13.Google Scholar
  105. Sosa-Nájera MS, Martínez-Hernández E, Lozano-García MS, Cuadriello-Aguilar JI. 1994. Nectaropolliniferous sources used by Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Grana 33: 225-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Torres-Ruiz A, Jones RW, Ayala-Barajas R. 2013. Present and Potential use of Bees as Managed Pollinators in Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist 38: 133-148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Venturieri GA. 1994. Floral biology of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willdenow ex Sprengel) Schumann). PhD Thesis, University of Reading; Reading UK, 211 pp.Google Scholar
  108. Viana BF, da Encarnação CJG, Garibaldi LA, Bragança GGL, Peres GK, Oliveira da SF. 2014. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production. Journal of Pollination Ecology 14: 261-269.Google Scholar
  109. Villanueva-Gutiérrez R, Roubik DW. 2004. Why are African honey bees and not European bees invasive? Pollen diet determination in community experiments. Apidologie 35: 550-560.Google Scholar
  110. Wille A. 1976. Las abejas jicotes del genero Melipona (Apidae: Meliponini) de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 24:123–47.Google Scholar
  111. Wille A. 1983. Biology of the stingless bees. Annual Review of Entomology, 28: 41-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wille A, Orozco E, Raabe C. 1983. Polinizacion del chayote Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz en Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical. 31: 145-54.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virginia Meléndez Ramírez
    • 1
  • Ricardo Ayala
    • 2
  • Hugo Delfín González
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Zoología, Campus de Ciencias Biológicas y AgropecuariasUniversidad Autónoma de YucatánMéridaMexico
  2. 2.Estación de Biología Chamela, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)San PatricioMexico

Personalised recommendations