Epithelial Hyperplasia

  • D. Amy
  • T. Tot
  • G. BottaEmail author


Intraductal and intralobular proliferations are common lesions in the “screening era.” The impressive improvements in mammary ultrasound allow one to bring to light the modifications corresponding to epithelial proliferation. At present, it is impossible to distinguish between the various stages of hyperplasia and in situ cancer through echography. It is a significant improvement to be able to distinguish a lobular modification from a ductal one. Nevertheless, although echography is but one technique of imaging, it enables us to identify the patients at risk who have to remain under close scrutiny with very regular mammographic and echographic checkups. The combination of these two techniques is essential.

The natural history of these lesions is poorly understood (further studies will be necessary). Uniform classification and reporting of benign breast disease is needed to better delineate the relationship of specific benign breast disease pathologies and increased risk of breast cancer.

Even if intraductal/intralobular proliferations are a non-obligate precursor to invasive breast cancer, they show an increased risk of developing a subsequent breast-invasive cancer (different risk for each group).


Intraductal proliferation Intralobular proliferation Usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) 



Thanks to Dr. Riccardo Arisio for the general support and to Silvia Botta for pathological drawings.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre du seinAix-en-ProvenceFrance
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Clinical CytologyFalun Central HospitalFalunSweden
  3. 3.Department of PathologySant Anna HospitalTorinoItaly

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