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Introduction to Oral Cancer

  • Prashanth PantaEmail author
  • Dimitrios Andreadis
Chapter

Abstract

Oral cancer is the 6th most common type of human cancer with a 5-year survival rate approximately 50%, and its formation occurs in multiple steps. In the majority of cases, a well-established, preventable risk factor is involved. Several potentially malignant disorders precede oral cancer, each of them showing a well-defined clinical presentation. Spotting such precursor lesions should be no challenge to experienced clinicians. The 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system on “oral potentially malignant disorders” is also presented here. Potentially malignant disorders encompass habit associated conditions, immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders, and also conditions that may arise due to solar radiation like actinic cheilitis and also genetic disorders like dyskeratosis congenita. Like in other cancer models, studies have focused on oral cancer stem cell population as the cancer-initiating cells and hidden culprits. Besides tobacco and alcohol, viruses (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, mechanical trauma and galvanic phenomenon, candidal infection, and inherited mutations are now established etiological or synergistic factors that cannot be underestimated in the genesis and progress of oral cancer. This chapter deals with common risk factors and oral potentially malignant disorders.

Keywords

Oral cancer Oral squamous cell carcinoma Oral potentially malignant disorders Oral dysplasia Oral cancer stem cells 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Medicine and RadiologyMNR Dental College and HospitalSangareddyIndia
  2. 2.Department of Oral Medicine/PathologySchool of Dentistry, Aristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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