Environmental Instruments in Trade Agreements: Pushing the Limits of the Dialogue Approach
The EU has spearheaded the signing of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) with multiple countries across the developing world. These agreements play an important role in the toolkit of EU external environmental governance instruments by including environmental standards requiring trading partners to maintain proper levels of environmental protection. This chapter offers a much needed assessment of the effectiveness of environmental standards in EU PTAs. It traces the evolution of the EU’s approach towards environmental provisions, focusing on their governance mechanisms, and further examines their implementation in EU PTA partners, assessing the governments’ and civil society’s involvement in this process and pointing at the deficiencies of the EU’s approach, such as their limited scope and soft enforcement.
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