Origin of Nipple-Areolar Complex Irregularities

  • Melvin A. ShiffmanEmail author


The origins of the various abnormalities of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) should be understood by any surgeon performing breast surgery in order to prevent irregularities that might avoid reconstruction. The author discusses irregularities of the NAC and methods to avoid them and correct them. No matter how hard one tries to achieve bilateral NAC symmetry, there is great difficulty in achieving equality. There always is slight asymmetry even in the normal unoperated breast.


  1. 1.
    McKissock PK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Courtiss EH, editor. Aesthetic surgery trouble: how to avoid it and how to treat it. Saint Louis: C.V. Mosby Company; 1978. p. 189–203.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Millard DR, Mullin WR, Lasavoy MA. Secondary correction of the too-high areola and nipple after a mammaplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1976;58(5):568–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown MH, Semple JL, Neligan PC. Variables affecting symmetry of the nipple-areola complex. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995;96(4):846–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Private PracticeTustinUSA

Personalised recommendations