High-Grade and Recurrent Inverted Nipple: An Effective Surgical Treatment for the Most Challenging Cases

  • Roberto Bracaglia
  • Marco D’EttorreEmail author


Inverted nipple is a relatively common malformation. Most of the times it is congenital, due to short and fibrotic ducts; however, it can be also secondary to neoplastic, traumatic, or inflammatory processes. Han and Hoog’s classification, with its three different grades, allows us to identify inversion severity and possibly orientates treatment. Several approaches have been described over years, having different invasiveness and indications. In our opinion, minimally invasive procedures, which preserve lactation, may be beneficial for the lowest grades, but they are unlikely to be effective in the most severe cases. Our surgical technique herein presented, despite its invasiveness, has proved to be reliable, safe, easy, repeatable, and effective in the most difficult cases: highest grades and relapses.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bracaglia Aesthetic Center for Plastic Surgery and Aesthetic Medicine, Casa di Cura Villa Stuart – EUROSANITÁ SPARomeItaly
  2. 2.Plastic Surgery InstituteRomeItaly

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