Smooth Muscle Morphology in the Nipple-Areola Complex

  • Murat TezerEmail author


The author discusses nipple function and the anatomy of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) anatomy especially that of the muscles. The NAC smooth musculature is divided into outer, intermediate, and inner layers from the areola to the nipple. The inner part of the smooth musculature surrounds the infundibular region of the mammillary milk ducts in a basketlike manner. The inner muscular fibers continue into the stronger intermediate layer, which is covered by an outer layer of smooth musculature situated around the ducts of the Montgomery glands. There are muscles surrounding vessels and lactiferous ducts.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyEsenyurt State HospitalIstanbulTurkey

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