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Angel Flap for Nipple Reconstruction

  • Wendy W. Wong
  • Mark C. Martin
Chapter

Abstract

Creation of an aesthetically pleasing nipple plays a significant role in breast reconstruction as a determining factor in patient satisfaction. The goals for nipple reconstruction include minimal donor site morbidity and appropriate, long-lasting projection. The authors introduce the angel flap, which is designed to achieve nipple projection with lasting results. The lateral edges of the flap and the area surrounding the top of the nipple are de-epithelialized, and the flaps are wrapped to create a nipple mound composed primarily of dermis. Decreasing the amount of fat within core of the nipple and enhancing dermal content promote long-lasting projection. Furthermore, the incision pattern fits within a desired areolar size, preventing unnecessary superfluous extension of the incisions. This technique achieves the goals of nipple reconstruction, including adequate and long-lasting projection, without extension of the lateral limb scars.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic SurgeryLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  2. 2.Gallery Plastic SurgeryMontereyUSA

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