Nipple-Areola Reconstruction Using Local Flaps
Nipple-areola reconstruction is an important and transformative element in breast reconstruction. Despite numerous techniques to create and maintain a realistic nipple-areola reconstruction, long-term durability of nipple mound projection can be difficult. The method of spiral wrap flap for nipple reconstruction provides excellent early nipple size and late nipple persistence based on sound principles of soft tissue healing. Confounding factors such as preoperative radiation and thin tissue-expanded skin envelopes provide additional challenges that can be improved with a staged nipple-delay approach. Nevertheless, one must be prepared to manage immediate nipple necrosis and delayed nipple flattening with secondary procedures.
- 5.Jones G. Bostwick’s plastic and reconstructive surgery. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 2010. p. 1663–723.Google Scholar