Nipple-Areola Complex Reconstruction with Dermal-Fat Flaps: Technical Improvement from Rolled Auricular Cartilage to Artificial Bone
The method by Yanaga successfully achieved NAC reconstruction with dermal-fat flaps and cartilage or artificial bone. An advantage of this method is that a base is formed by the dermis at the central portion of the two dermal-fat flaps, so the probability of retraction is greatly reduced. The authors also use a method of skin grafting from a proximal portion of the inner thigh for adaptation to the texture and color tone of the NAC. This method enables NAC reconstruction in one step.
- 2.Bostwick J III. Plastic and reconstruction breast surgery. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 2000.Google Scholar
- 3.Spear SL. Surgery of the breast, vol. 2. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.Google Scholar
- 8.Little JW 3rd, Spear SL. The finishing touches in nipple-areolar reconstruction. Perspect Plast Surg. 1988;2:1.Google Scholar
- 11.Anton MR, Eskenazi LB, Hartrampf CR Jr. Nipple reconstruction with local flaps: star and wrap flaps. Perspect Plast Surg. 1991;5:67–78.Google Scholar
- 17.Tanable HY, Tai Y, Kiyokawa K, Yamauchi T. Nipple-areola reconstruction with a dermal-fat flap and rolled auricular cartilage. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100:431–8.Google Scholar
- 1.In reference 17, the author name H. Tanable (Hiroko Tanable) has been changed to H. Yanaga (Hiroko Yanaga) in 1999.Google Scholar