Reconstruction of the Nipple-Areola Complex

  • Johanna N. RieselEmail author
  • Yoon S. Chun


Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Increasingly, women are choosing to undergo bilateral or unilateral prophylactic mastectomies in addition to therapeutic mastectomies. Accordingly, reconstructive procedures have also increased by as much as 203%. Breast reconstruction can provide significant psychosocial benefits for women. Nipple and areola reconstruction, a combination of artistic and geometric pursuits, is often the final step in breast reconstruction and has been said to offer patients a sense of “completeness.” However, it must be approached with considerable caution. In this chapter, we will discuss the indications and contraindications, techniques, controversies, alternatives, and future work for nipple and areola reconstruction.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryHarvard Combined Plastic Surgery Residency ProgramBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plastic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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