History of Nipple-Areolar Complex Reconstruction

  • Melvin A. Shiffman


The development of nipple-areolar complex (NAC) reconstruction is instructive to the surgeon performing breast surgery. From the physiologic purpose of the NAC to ideal breast, optimal breast NAC position, NAC proportions, prevention of nipple-areolar complex loss or deformity, abnormalities of the NAC, correcting improper nipple-areolar complex position, correcting the high-riding nipple-areolar complex, nipple-areola sharing, nipple-areolar body grafts, nipple inversion, congenital causes of nipple inversion, classification of inverted nipples, nipple hypertrophy, nipple-areolar complex reconstruction with flap methods, and tattooing.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Private PracticeTustinUSA

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