Two-Way Coupled Eulerian–Eulerian Simulations of a Viscous Snow Phase with Turbulent Drag
A novel two-way coupled Eulerian–Eulerian CFD formulation was developed to simulate drifting snow based on turbulent drag and a new viscous treatment of the drifting snow phase, derived from first principles. This approach allowed explicit resolution of the saltation layer without resorting to empiricism, unlike other Eulerian–Eulerian models based on mixture formulations and one-way coupling. Initial validations were carried out against detailed snow flux, airflow velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy measurements in a controlled experimental simulation of drifting snow in a wind tunnel using actual snow particles. The two-way coupled approach was found capable of simulating drifting snow fluxes in both saltation and suspension layers with reasonable accuracy. Recommendations were made to improve the accuracy of the method for air velocity and turbulent kinetic energy, and to allow simulating a drifting snow phase with a particle size distribution.
KeywordsDrifting snow Eulerian–Eulerian Viscosity Turbulent drag Snow flux
The authors warmly thank Profs. Akashi Mochida, Tsubasa Okaze, and Yoshihide Tominaga for sharing their experimental results. In particular, the patience and dedication of Prof. Okaze to answering our numerous questions are gratefully acknowledged. Many thanks!
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