Lebanese Women’s Rights Beyond the Cedar Revolution
Whereas the Arab Spring usually refers to the revolts that started in Tunisia in 2011, it is possible to argue that Lebanon is a pioneer of Arab revolutions by virtue of its Cedar Revolution, which began in 2005 as a popular protest movement against the military and political presence of Syria. Women performed an important role in the revolution, and it in turn has played a key part in the evolution of gender standards in Lebanon since. This chapter discusses the revolution from a gendered standpoint, and it highlights the merger of gender advocacy and political/ democratic advocacy.
- Al-Akhbar, E. 2013. Lebanese Man Accused of Killing Wife to Remain in Prison. http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/lebanese-man-accused-killing-wife-remain-prison. Accessed 26 July 2013.
- Al-Qaderri, N. 2001. Lebanese Women’s Journalism and Organizations in the Twenties, Two Faces-One Coin. In al-Nisa’ al-’Arabiyat fi al-ishrinat: huduran wa-huwiyah, ed. J.S. Makdisi, N.S. Yarid, and T. al-B al-Lubnaniyat, 71–98. Beirut: Tajammu’ al-Bahithat al-Lubnaniyat.Google Scholar
- Al-Turk, J. 2005. Women in the Martyrs Square: Their Strategic Participation by Shaking of Political Inhibitions in Order to Resurrect Lebanon. Al-Mustaqbal, March 10, 2005.Google Scholar
- BBC Beirut, in Al-Hoor Electronic Newspaper. 2013, July 17. Legal Dissatisfaction Following the Death of a Lebanese Woman at the Hands of Her Husband. http://hooor.org/news14079.html. Accessed 25 July 2013.
- Charafeddine, F. 2004. Musharakat al-maraa al Lubnania fi al hayat al siyasiya: al waqe’ wa al afaq. In al-Musharaka al-Siyasiya lil maraa al-arabiya, ed. A.-t. al- Bakoush. Tunis: The Arab Center for Human Rights.Google Scholar
- CRTD.A. 2013. Reports Page. http://crtda.org.lb/reports. Accessed August 2, 2013.
- Ghazal, R. 2005a. Asma Andraos Honored as ‘Hero of Change’. Daily Star, October 14, 2005.Google Scholar
- ———. 2005b. Anti-Syrian Protests Continue Despite Announced Redeployment: Campers Determined to Stay Until the Complete Withdrawal of Troops. Daily Star, March 8, 2005.Google Scholar
- Hamadah, N. 2000. al-Muwatiniyah: Tafkikuha wa iadat siyaghataha min manthour genousi. In al-Muwatiniyah fi Lubnan bayna al-rajul wa-al-marah: min waqai Mu’tamar al-Muwatiniyah fi Lubnan, ed. N. Hamadah, J.S. Makdisi, and S. Joseph, 13–24. Beirut: Dar al-Jadid.Google Scholar
- Huntington, S.P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
- Jumblat, N. 2006. Personal Interview. Beirut, Lebanon.Google Scholar
- ———. 2005. KAFA “News and Campaigns”. http://www.kafa.org.lb/kafa-news
- KAFA. 2013. Enough Violence and Exploitation, Joint Committees Approve the Law to Protect Women. http://www.kafa.org.lb/kafa-news/65/joint-committees-approve-the-law-to-protect-women. Accessed 25 July 2013.
- Merei, A.A. 2005. A Shiite Progressive Woman. Annahar, March 30, 2005.Google Scholar
- Merhi, Z. 2013, July 24. Lebanon Domestic Violence Law: A “Cosmetic” Gain for Women? Al-Akhbar English. http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/lebanon-domestic-violence-law-%E2%80%9Ccosmetic%E2%80%9D-gain-women. Accessed 25 July 2013.
- Modad, M. 2005. Is it Time for Women’s Participation in Social and National Politics? Annahar, March 13, 2005.Google Scholar
- Moghaizel, L. 1985. al Mar’a fi al tashree’ al Lubnani fi daw’ al itifaqiyat al duwaliya ma’a muqarana bil tashri’at al ’Arabia. Beirut: Institute for Women’s Studies in the Arab World, Lebanese American University.Google Scholar
- ———. 2000. Huquq al mar’a al insan fi lubnan: fi daw’ itifaqiyet al qada’ ala jamyi’ ashkal al tamyeez did al mar’a. Beirut: The National Commission for Lebanese Women and Joseph and Lore Mogheizel Foundation.Google Scholar
- Morgan, R. 2011. “Women of the Arab Spring” in MS. Magazine, Spring. http://www.msmagazine.com/spring2011/womenofthearabspring.asp
- Nasawiya. 2013. http://www.nasawiya.org/web/. Accessed 31 July 2013.
- Salem, P. 1993. al-dimukratia al-alamia wa al-arabia wa al-hala al-Lubnania (Global and Arab Democracy and the Lebanese Case). In al-intikhabat al-ula fi Lubnan baad al-Harb, ed. P. Salem and F. Khazen. Beirut: Lebanese Center for Politicy Studies.Google Scholar
- Sheea, M. 2005. The Sky Is Their Cover and the Flag Is Their Weapon, Along with the White Flowers Which They Offered to the Soldiers, Demonstrators in the Freedom Square Awaited a New Dawn: We Will Not Leave Unless the Syrians Apologize and the State Shows Remorse for their Crime. Annahar, March 1, 2005.Google Scholar
- Stephan, R. 2005. Qira’a fi Asbab Intifada al-Haqiqa wa Mustaqbalaha. Al-Mustaqbal Newspaper, March 28, 2005, p. 4.Google Scholar
- ———. 2010a. Leadership of Lebanese Women in the Cedar Revolution. In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Presentation and Representation, ed. F. Shirazi. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- ———. 2011. Women’s Rights Movement in Lebanon. In Mapping Arab Women Movements: A Century of Transformation from Within, ed. N.A.H. Golley and P. Arenfeldt. Cairo/New York: American University of Cairo Press.Google Scholar
- ———. 2013. Political Implications of Cyberfeminism for Women in the Arab World. e-International Relations. http://www.e-ir.info/