Impact of Non-verbal Communication on Collaboration in 3D Virtual Worlds: Case Study Research in Learning of Aircraft Maintenance Practices

  • Gustavo Silva
  • Leonel MorgadoEmail author
  • Armando Cruz
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 725)


Virtual worlds are widely regarded as a successful approach for professional team training, due to promoting collaboration through user avatars. Current theoretical models of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) do not account for the specificity of virtual worlds’ affordances for collaboration, particularly regarding non-verbal communication affordances, which led Cruz et al. to propose in iLRN in 2015 a specific protocol to collect data to support the empirical-grounded refinement of the theoretical treatment of virtual worlds in CSCW. Here, we present the results of applying this protocol to a case study in the training of aircraft maintenance practices. A training simulator platform was built with the Open Simulator platform for this purpose. Through activity observation, collected data provided a set of chains of evidence as proof elements, increasing the amount of empirical data available for future theory development.


Virtual environments Virtual worlds Collaboration Presence Non-verbal communication Aircraft maintenance 



The presentation of this work was partly financed by the ERDF – European Regional Development Fund through the Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation - COMPETE 2020 Programme within project «POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006961», by National Funds through the Portuguese funding agency, FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia as part of project «UID/EEA/50014/2013», and by the project Tele-Média-Arte, funded by FCG - Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade AbertaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.INESC TECPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Instituto Politécnico de ViseuViseuPortugal

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