Advertisement

Strengths and Limitations of Conservation NGOs in Meeting Local Needs

  • Emmanuel O. Nuesiri
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Anthropology of Sustainability book series (PSAS)

Abstract

Conservation nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) are often involved in the design and implementation of global forest management initiatives such as the REDD+, which currently is being rolled out by the UNFCCC, the UN-REDD Programme and the World Bank as part of efforts to mitigate climate change. Nigeria joined the UN-REDD in 2010 and submitted its REDD+ readiness proposal in 2011. The proposal has a national component and subnational forestry activities in the Cross River State (CRS) as the pilot site. This chapter examines the involvement of local NGOs in the CRS consultative participatory meetings to validate the Nigeria-REDD proposal. It shows that political representation of local communities in the validation exercise was through customary authorities and NGOs who claim to speak for and are recognised as advocates for the communities. Local government authorities, the substantive political representatives of local communities were left out of the process. The chapter also shows how the CRS Forestry Commission, which organised the validation exercise, used NGOs as pawns to legitimise it, and how these NGOs were powerless to challenge the Forestry Commission. In contrast, local governments, the third tier of government and political authority routinely disrespected by state-level administrators, regularly challenge such higher level government actors in the courts and the national legislature. Thus, local NGOs may speak and work for local social development but compared to the substantive political representatives at the local level (e.g., local government authorities), local NGOs have limited resources to challenge the political shenanigans of the state.

References

  1. Adesopo, A. 2011. Re-examining the Failing Inter-governmental Fiscal Relations and Sustenance of Nigerian Federation: An Empirical Study. Asian Social Science 7 (10): 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afrobarometer. 2008. Public Opinion and Local Government in Nigeria, 2008. Afrobarometer Briefing Paper No. 53.Google Scholar
  3. Akpan, F., and O. Ekanem. 2013. The Politics of Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria Reloaded. European Scientific Journal 9 (35): 193–205.Google Scholar
  4. AKSG (Akwa Ibom State Government). 2012. 76 Oil Wells—How Cross River State Went to Court and Lost. http://www.africanspotlight.com/2012/07/23/76-oil-wells-how-cross-river-state-went-to-court-and-lost/. Accessed 28 June 2013.
  5. ARD. 2001. Nigeria: Local Government Assessment, Report prepared for USAID. Burlington: ARD, Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Bluhdorn, I. 2007. Sustaining the Unsustainable: Symbolic Politics and the Politics of Simulation. Environmental Politics 16 (2): 25l–275.Google Scholar
  7. Brockington, D., and K. Scholfield. 2010. The Work of Conservation Organisations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies 48 (1): 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brysk, A. 1995. ‘Hearts and Minds’: Bringing Symbolic Politics Back In. Polity 27 (4): 559–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chapin, M. 2004. A Challenge to Conservationists. World Watch Magazine 17 (6): 17–31.Google Scholar
  10. CLGF (Commonwealth Local Government Forum). 2011. News Release—CLGF Pledges to Help Strengthen Local Government in Nigeria. http://www.clgf.org.uk/whats-new/news/clgf-pledges-to-help-strengthen-local-government-in-nigeria/. Accessed 28 June 2013.
  11. CRS (Cross River State). 2008. Communique of the Stakeholders’ Summit on the Environment Organized by the Government of Cross River State from the 25–28 June 2008. Calabar, Nigeria. http://tropicalforestgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/crsoutcomesdOC.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  12. Diejomaoh, I., and E. Eboh. 2010. Local Governments in Nigeria: Relevance and Effectiveness in Poverty Reduction and Economic Development. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 1 (1): 12–28.Google Scholar
  13. Dryzek, J.S., and S. Niemeyer. 2008. Discursive Representation. American Political Science Review 102 (4): 481–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edelman, M. 1985. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  15. FGN (Federal Government of Nigeria). 1978. Nigeria Land Use Act 1978. Abuja: Federal Government of Nigeria.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Government of Nigeria.Google Scholar
  17. Filou, E. 2010. Odigha Odigha: Speaking Truth to Power. http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/dynamic/article.page.php?page_id=7497&section=news_articles&eod=1. Accessed 28 Apr 2016.
  18. ———. 2011. Nigerian State Sets REDD Pace for Entire Continent. http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/nigerian-state-sets-redd-pace-for-entire-continent/. Accessed 28 Apr 2016.
  19. FME (Federal Ministry of Environment). 2012. Nigeria’s REDD+ Readiness Programme (2012–2015). Abuja: Federal Ministry of Environment.Google Scholar
  20. Forest Trends, the Katoomba Group and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2008. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Getting Started—A Primer. Washington, DC: Forest Trends and the Katoomba Group.Google Scholar
  21. Fraser, N. 2005. Reframing Justice in a Globalizing World. New Left Review 36: 69–88.Google Scholar
  22. Global Witness. 2011. Review of Nigeria’s NPD Submitted to the 7th Policy Board Meeting of the UN-REDD Programme. https://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/nigeria%20npd.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  23. Grunebaum, J.O. 1981. What Ought the Representative Represent? In Ethical Issues in Government, ed. N.E. Bowie, 54–67. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Harcourt, A.H., K.J. Stewart, and I.M. Inahoro. 1989. Nigeria’s Gorillas. Primate Conservation 10: 73–79.Google Scholar
  25. Holloway, R. 1999. NGOs: Loosing the Moral High Ground-Corruption and Misrepresentation. In: the 8th International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC). http://8iacc.org/papers/holloway.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  26. Ite, U.E. 1996. Community Perceptions of the Cross River National Park, Nigeria. Environmental Conservation 23 (4): 351–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ———. 1997. Small Farmers and Forest Loss in Cross River National Park, Nigeria. Geographical Journal 163 (1): 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ———. 1998. New Wine in an Old Skin: The Reality of Tropical Moist Forest Conservation in Nigeria. Land Use Policy 15 (2): 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kateb, G. 1981. The Moral Distinctiveness of Representative Democracy. Ethics 91 (3): 357–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keck, M.E., and K. Sikkink. 1999. Transnational Advocacy Networks in International and Regional Politics. International Social Science Journal 51 (159): 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Konings, P. 2011. Settling Border Conflicts in Africa Peacefully: Lessons Learned from the Bakassi Dispute Between Cameroon and Nigeria. In Land, Law and Politics in Africa: Mediating Conflict and Reshaping the State, ed. J. Abbink and M. de Bruijn, 191–210. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lombardo, E., and P. Meier. 2014. The Symbolic Representation of Gender: A Discursive Approach. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  33. Manin, B., A. Przeworski, and S. Stokes. 1999. Introduction. In Democracy, Accountability and Representation, ed. A. Przeworski, S. Stokes, and B. Manin, 1–26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mansbridge, J. 1999. Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes’. The Journal of Politics 61 (3): 628–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mill, J. S. 1861. Considerations on Representative Government. London: Parker, Son, and Bourn. https://archive.org/stream/considerationso04millgoog$page/n16/mode/2up. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  36. Miller, H.T. 2012. Governing Narratives: Symbolic Politics and Policy Change. Tuscaloosa: University Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  37. Montanaro, L. 2012. The Democratic Legitimacy of Self-Appointed Representatives. The Journal of Politics 74 (4): 1094–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nuesiri, E.O. 2003. Conservation and Resource Use in Cross River—Takamanda Forest Complex of Cameroon and Nigeria. Report Submitted to Fauna and Flora International (FFI). https://www.academia.edu/4356469/Report_on_conservation_and_resource_use_in_Cross_River_-_Takamanda_forest_complex_of_Cameroon_and_Nigeria. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  39. ———. 2015. Representation in REDD: NGOs and Chiefs Privileged over Elected Local Government in Cross River State, Nigeria, RFGI Working Paper No. 11. Dakar: CODESRIA. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/45265. Accessed 22 February 2017.Google Scholar
  40. Oates, J.F., R.A. Bergl, and J.M. Linder. 2004. Africa’s Gulf of Guinea Forests—Biodiversity Patterns and Conservation Priorities, Advances in Applied Biodiversity Science Number 6. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society.Google Scholar
  41. Oates, J.F., J. Sunderland-Groves, R. Bergl, A. Dunn, A. Nicholas, E. Takang, F. Omeniet, et al. 2007. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla Gorilla Diehli). Arlington: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Conservation International. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2007-012.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  42. Olaniyi, B. 2015. Rivers Local Governments of Controversy. http://thenationonlineng.net/rivers-local-governments-of-controversy/. Accessed 18 Jan 2016.
  43. Olubusoye, O.E., and T.D.T. Oyedotun. 2012. Quantitative Evaluation of Revenue Allocation to States and Local Governments in Nigeria (1999–2008). European Scientific Journal 8 (3): 224–243.Google Scholar
  44. Omar, M. 2012. Ensuring Free, Fair and Credible Elections in Local Governments in Nigeria. Developing Country Studies 2 (11): 75–81.Google Scholar
  45. Oyebo, M., F. Bisong, and T. Morakinyo. 2010. A Preliminary Assessment of the Context for REDD in Nigeria. Report Commissioned by Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Environment, the Cross River State’s Forestry Commission and United Nations Development Programme. http://www.unredd.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=4129&Itemid=53. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  46. Pandrillus. 2013. Peter Jenkins Installed as Chairman of the Cross River State Anti-deforestation Task Force (ATF). http://www.pandrillus.org/news/peter-jenkins-installed-as-chairman-of-cross-river-state-anti-deforestation-taskforce/. Accessed 28 June 2013.
  47. Pitkin, H.F. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Rehfeld, A. 2006. Towards a General Theory of Political Representation. The Journal of Politics 68 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ———. 2011. The Concepts of Representation. American Political Science Review 105 (3): 631–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ribot, J.C., E. Barrow, and E. Sall. 2010. Responsive Forest Governance Initiative (RFGI): Project Summary and Introduction. http://www.codesria.org/IMG/pdf/RFGI_Summary.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  51. Runciman, D. 2007. The Paradox of Political Representation. Journal of Political Philosophy 15: 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saward, M. 2006. The Representative Claim. Contemporary Political Theory 5 (3): 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. ———. 2008. Representation and Democracy: Revisions and Possibilities. Sociology Compass 2: 1000–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silveira, S. 2001. The American Environmental Movement: Surviving Through Diversity. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 28 (2): 497–532.Google Scholar
  55. TFG (Tropical Forest Group). 2011. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation. Nigeria: Cross River State. http://www.tropicalforestgroup.org/logging-moratorium-cross-river-state-nigeria/. Accessed 28 Apr 2016.
  56. The Guardian. 2015. Wike, ALGON Disagree over Right to Borrow from Banks. http://guardian.ng/news/wike-algon-disagree-over-right-to-borrow-from-banks/. Accessed 28 Apr 2016.
  57. UNDDSMS (United Nations Systems Department for Development Support and Management Services) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1996. Local Governance: Report of the United Nations Global Forum on Innovative Policies and Practices in Local Governance. Gothenburg, Sweden, 23–27 September. https://publicadministration.un.org/publications/content/e-library.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2017.
  58. Urbinati, N., and M. Warren. 2008. The Concept of Representation in Contemporary Democratic Theory. Annual Review of Political Science 11: 387–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. USAID. 2010. Property Rights and Resource Governance—Nigeria, USAID Country Profile. Washington, DC: USAID.Google Scholar
  60. Usman, B.A., and L.L. Adefalu. 2010. Nigerian Forestry, Wildlife and Protected Areas: Status Report. Tropical Conservancy 11 (3–4): 54–62.Google Scholar
  61. Vanguard. 2014. LG Autonomy: ALGON Lauds Stakeholders. http://www.vanguardngr.com/2014/11/lg-autonomy-algon-lauds-stakeholders/. Accessed 28 Apr 2016.
  62. Wintrobe, R. 1998. The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel O. Nuesiri
    • 1
  1. 1.University of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations