Human Immunodeficiency Virus
The human immunodeficiency virus affects 37 million individuals, including 17.8 million women, worldwide. Currently, one out of every four patients living with HIV in the United States is a woman, with minority women affected disproportionately. Without treatment, an estimated 25% of children born to HIV-infected women will become infected. This chapter reviews obstetric strategies to reduce mother-to-child transmission in the peripartum period, as well as analgesic and anesthetic management options for HIV-infected women during labor and delivery (vaginal or cesarean). It also reviews treatment options for post-dural puncture headache and strategies to optimize health-care worker safety when providing care for HIV-infected individuals.
KeywordsHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) HIV in pregnancy Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) HIV screening Opt-out testing Diagnostic HIV tests Accidental dural puncture (ADP) Anesthetic management of patients with HIV Antiretroviral therapy (ART) Zidovudine (ZDV, AZT) Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) Neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) Epidural blood patch (EBP)
Accidental dural puncture
Central nervous system
Epidural blood patch
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
Human immunodeficiency virus
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
Liver function tests
Mycobacterium avium complex
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
P. carinii pneumonia
Post-dural puncture headache
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