Fertilizer Recommendation for Maize, Sorghum, Millet, Cowpea, Soybean and Cotton in Nigeria

Chapter

Abstract

Nigeria, like most sub-Sahara Africa countries, is an agrarian country its heavy reliance on petroleum as a major source of income notwithstanding. Fertilizer is one of the most important inputs needed for increased and sustained crop and soil productivity. This is because most of the soils are inherently poorly endowed with many of the essential nutrients required by crops grown in Nigeria. Due to the fact that fertilizers must be used judiciously to ensure good economic returns and minimize any deleterious environmental consequence, there is the need to determine the right source, right rate, right placement method and time of application (4Rs). This is further necessitated by the high spatial variability of Nigerian soils occasioned by diverse rocks from where they are formed, the climate, vegetation and other soil forming factors. Efforts have been made by Agronomists and Soil Scientists since 1937, when inorganic fertilizers were introduced into Nigeria, to ensure that the four Rs of best fertilizer management practices (BFMPs) are put in place. This paper reviews the development in fertilizer recommendations for some selected crops in Nigeria. It ascertained that before a recommendation is made necessary steps such as correlation and calibration studies, and the establishment of critical soil test levels are carried out; such trials result in average recommendations for a crop within an area which are normally put out by approved extension agencies for adoption by farmers. Most of these efforts were aimed at maximizing crop yields while a few studies included information on maximizing profits and providing options for different economic categories of farmers to use this input. The paper posits that to ensure site-specific recommendation, efforts should be geared towards the employment of decision support tools such as Nutrient Expert and Rice Advisor, among others and soil tests with innovative tools such as the SoilDoc and other soil test kits.

Keywords

Fertilizer recommendation Site-specific Soil test 

References

  1. Adeoye, G. O. (2006). Nutrient rationalization in Nigerian compound fertilizers (NPK) with special focus on phosphorus and potassium utilization (57p). Davao: USAID MARKETS.Google Scholar
  2. Amapu, I. Y. (2014). Training farmers as village extension agents in Nigeria In: AGRA and IIRR, Investing in soil: Cases and lessons from AGRA’s Soil Health Programme (pp. 99–102). Nairobi: Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa and International Institute of Rural Reconstruction.Google Scholar
  3. Chude, V. O., Olayiwola, S. O., Osho, A. O., & Daudu, C. K. (2012). Fertilizer use and management practices for crops in Nigeria (4th ed. 229p). Abuja: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources.Google Scholar
  4. Jansen, J., Wortmann, C.S., Stockton, M.C., & Kaizzi, C.K. (2013). Maximizingnet returns to financially constrained fertilizer use. Agronomy Journal 105:573–578.Google Scholar
  5. National Population Census. (2006). www.nigerianstat.gov.ng
  6. ProOpCom. (2011). Promoting pro-poor opportunities in commodity and service markets. Making fertilizer markets work for the poor in Nigeria (A PrOpCom case study, 30p). Abuja: Green Ink Ltd. www.greenink.co.uk
  7. World Bank. (2016). World Development Indicators: Fertilizer consumption. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.CON.FERT.ZS, 2015
  8. Youl, S. (2016). Efforts towards harmonizing fertilizer recommendations. Presentation made at the 2nd Annual West Africa Fertilizer Stakeholder’s Forum (WAFSF), 18th – 20th May, 2016 Abuja – Nigeria.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureInstitute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello UniversityZariaNigeria
  2. 2.Productivity Enhancement DepartmentNational Programme for Food SecurityAbujaNigeria

Personalised recommendations