Metal Allergy pp 443-466 | Cite as

Metal Allergy: Titanium

  • Curt HamannEmail author


Titanium is considered to be biocompatible because of a number of favorable theoretical properties: resistance to corrosion, bio-inertness, capacity for osseointegration, high fatigue limit, and nonferromagnetism. Consequently, it has already been widely used in medical and dental implants, and projections suggest that its use in such bioapplications will only increase. Other routes of exposure include food and personal care products. Because few diagnosed cases of type IV reactions to titanium have been reported, its allergenic status has been controversial. There are reasons, however, to expect that cases are being underreported. Not only are cases of hypersensitivity likely under-recognized, in vivo diagnostic testing (patch testing) for titanium hypersensitivity has been conducted with water-insoluble compounds that do not penetrate the stratum corneum. Not surprisingly, the results of such tests have overwhelmingly been negative. None of the issues surrounding the allergenicity of titanium will likely be resolved until diagnostic testing for type IV hypersensitivity is conducted with a stable, solvent-soluble, protein-reactive titanium salt that penetrates the skin.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Contact Dermatitis InstitutePhoenixUSA

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