The College of Policing: Police Education and Research in England and Wales
Educating police officers has been a topical subject for many years. Since the days of August Vollmer at the start of the twentieth century, how police officers were educated was open to discussion and sometimes quite emotional debate. Vollmer was the first police chief to require that police officers attain college degrees, and persuaded the University of California to teach criminal justice. In 1916, UC Berkeley established a criminal justice programme, headed by Vollmer. At Berkeley, he taught O. W. Wilson, who went on to become a professor and continued his efforts to professionalise policing, by being the first to establish the first Police science degree at Municipal University of Wichita (now Wichita State University). This is often seen as the start of criminal justice as an academic field.
- Banton, M. (1964). The Policeman in the Community. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
- Bassey, M. (2013, April 6). The Current Enthusiasm for Evidenced-Based Policy Needs to be Met with a Greater Degree of Methodological Caution. British Politics and Policy. Available at: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/what-works-or-what-may-work-and-bets-on-whether-it-will/. Accessed 2 Feb 16.
- College of Policing. (2013). Frequently Asked Questions. Available at: http://www.college.police.uk/About/Documents/FAQs_College.doc. Accessed 5 Oct 15.
- College of Policing. (2014). Putting the Evidence Base into Policing. Available at: http://www.college.police.uk/News/archive/2014mar/Pages/news-evidence-base.aspx. Accessed 20 Dec 15.
- College of Policing. (2015a). About Us. Available at: http://www.college.police.uk/About/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 5 Oct 15.
- College of Policing. (2015b). College of Policing Supports Collaboration between Academics and Forces. Available at: http://www.college.police.uk/News/College-news/Pages/COP-collab-academics-forces.aspx. Accessed 11 Dec 16.
- College of Policing. (2015c). Police and Academic Collaboration. Available at: http://whatworks.college.police.uk/Involve/Pages/collaboration.aspx. Accessed 5 Oct 15.
- College of Policing. (2015d). Police Knowledge Fund. Available at: http://whatworks.college.police.uk/Involve/Pages/Knowledge-Fund.aspx. Accessed 11 Dec 15.
- College of Policing. (2015e). Evidence Base Camp. Available at: http://whatworks.college.police.uk/Involve/Pages/ebc.aspx. Accessed 24 Nov 15.
- Great Britain: Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001. Elizabeth II chapter 16. (2001). London: The Stationary Office.Google Scholar
- Greenhill, N. J. (1981). Professionalism in the Police Service. In M. D. Pope & N. Weiner (Eds.), Modern Policing. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
- Harris, R. E. (1949). New Police College Opened in Britain. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 40(2), 217–222.Google Scholar
- Holdaway, S. (1979). The British Police. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Holdaway, S. (1983). Inside the British Police: A Force at Work. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
- Home affairs Committee. (2011). New Landscape of Policing: Report. London: Parliament House of Commons.Google Scholar
- Hunter, G., May, T., Wigzell, A., & McSweeney, T. (2015). An Evaluation of the ‘What Works Centre for Crime Reduction’ Year 1: Baseline. Available at: http://whatworks.college.police.uk/About/Documents/WWCEvaluation_Year_1.pdf. Accessed 12 Nov 15.
- Johnson, L. (2005). The Rebirth of Private Policing. Taylor & Francis e-library: Taylor & Francis [online]. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=IeSIAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA55&lpg=PA55&dq=police+performance+indicators+private&source=bl&ots=RgYEq4xQhP&sig=iru9dW_8MZjXmnOwhjTboyqzCuk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0n_rwhOTLAhVFxxQKHQ0cD2MQ6AEIUTAH#v=onepage&q=police%20performance%20indicators%20private&f=false. Accessed 28 Feb 16.
- Laws, D., & Rein, M. (1997). Knowledge for Policy and Practice. In D. Tucker, C. Garvin, & R. Sarri (Eds.), Integrating Knowledge and Practice. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Laycock, G. (2014). Trust Me I’m a Researcher. In E. Cockbain & J. Knutsson (Eds.), Applied Police Research: Challenges and Opportunities. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- MacDonald, B. (1987). Research and Action in the Context of Policing: An Analysis of the Problem and a Programme Proposal. London: The Police Foundation of England and Wales.Google Scholar
- Miller, N. (2013). Evidence Matters. Available at: http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/events/2015/Miller-Evidence-Matters.pdf. Accessed 2 Feb 16.
- Mons, J., et al. (2008). Exploring the Impact of Police Officer Education Level on Allegations of Police Misconduct. International Journal of Police Sciences and Management, 10(4), 509–523.Google Scholar
- Parker, L., et al. (1976). Higher Education: Its Impact on Police Attitudes. The Police Chief, 43(7), 33–35.Google Scholar
- Pawson, R. (2001). Evidence Based Policy: I. In Search of a Method. Available at: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/departments/politicaleconomy/research/cep/pubs/papers/assets/wp3.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 15.
- Regoli, R. M. (1976). The Effects of College Education on the Maintenance of Police Cynicism. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 4, 340–345.Google Scholar
- Reiner, R. (2000). The Politics of the Police. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Reuss-Ianni, E. (1983). Two Cultures of Policing: Street Cops and Management Cops. London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
- Roberg, R. (1978). An Analysis of the Relationships Among Higher Education Belief Systems and Job Performance of Patrol Officers. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 6, 336–344.Google Scholar
- Snowden, D. (2015). Introduction to Sensemaker. Available at: http://cognitive-edge.com/resources/videos/. Accessed 12 Feb 16.
- Thomas, G., Gravelle, J., & Rogers, C. (2014). Research on Policing: Insights from the Literature. In C. Rogers & J. Gravelle (Eds.), Policing in the 21st Century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- University of Huddersfield. (2015). Applied Criminology Centre. Available at: http://www.hud.ac.uk/research/researchcentres/acc/. Accessed 20 Dec 15.
- UPSI. (2015). About Us. Available at: http://upsi.org.uk/about-us/. Accessed 20 Dec 15.Google Scholar
- Walklate, S. (2007). Understanding Criminology. Berkshire: Open University Press.Google Scholar
- WhatWorks Network. (2014). What Works Evidence For Decision Makers. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/378038/What_works_evidence_for_decision_makers.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 15.
- Wincup, E., & King, R. (2008). Doing Research on Crime and Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Young, M. (1991). An Inside Job: Policing and Police Culture in Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar