Update in Pediatric Allergy

  • Amanda Ciccolini
  • Shannon French
  • Mark Tenn
  • Anne K. EllisEmail author


The past few years has noted a number of new development relevant to the practice of pediatric allergy. This chapter aims to hit the highlights of areas of clinical practice where there are either significant changes to recommendations, and/or areas of clear clinical importance where the pediatrician should ensure they are following best practices. Specifically, we have highlighted new developments in food allergy, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and anaphylaxis.


Children Pediatric Food allergy IgE-mediated reactions Atopic dermatitis Filaggrin Calcineurin inhibitors Allergic rhinitis Subcutaneous immunotherapy Sublingual immunotherapy Anaphylaxis Epinephrine Biphasic reaction 


  1. Allergy Skin Test [Internet]. Medbroadcast. 2016. [Cited 25 May 2016].
  2. Alqurashi W, Stiell I, Chan K, Neto G, Alsadoon A, Wells G. Epidemiology and clinical predictors of biphasic reactions in children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115:217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asai Y, Greenwood C, Hull PR, Alizadehfar R, Ben-Shoshan M, Brown SJ, et al. Filaggrin gene mutation associations with peanut allergy persist despite variations in peanut allergy diagnostic criteria or asthma status. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:239–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bantz SK, Zhu Z, Zheng T. The atopic march: progression from atopic dermatitis to allergic rhinitis and asthma. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2014;5:202.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger TG, Duvic M, Van Voorhees AS, MJ VB, Frieden IJ, American Academy of Dermatology Association Task Force. The use of topical calcineurin inhibitors in dermatology: safety concerns. Report of the American Academy of Dermatology Association Task Force. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:818–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein IL, Li JT, Bernstein DI, Hamilton R, Spector SL, Tan R, et al. Allergy diagnostic testing: an updated practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;100(3 Suppl 3):S1–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieber T. Atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(14):1483–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bieber T. Atopic dermatitis. Ann Dermatol. 2010;22:125–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blaiss M, Maloney J, Nolte H, Gawchik S, Yao R, Skoner DP. Efficacy and safety of timothy grass allergy immunotherapy tablets in North American children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:64–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A, et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN and AllerGen). Allergy. 2008;63(Suppl 86):8–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, Jones SM, Sampson HA, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6 Suppl):S1–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Broeders JA, Ahmed Ali U, Fischer G. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing topical calcineurin inhibitors with topical corticosteroids for atopic dermatitis: a 15-year experience. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(2):410–9.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.02.1228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brough HA, Simpson A, Makinson K, Hankinson J, Brown S, Douiri A, et al. Peanut allergy: effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134:867–875.e1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brough HA, Liu AH, Sicherer S, Makinson K, Douiri A, Brown SJ, et al. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:164–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown SJ, McLean WHI. One remarkable molecule: filaggrin. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132(3 Pt 2):751–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown SJ, Asai Y, Cordell HJ, Campbell LE, Zhao Y, Liao H, et al. Loss-of-function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:661–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burks AW, Tang M, Sicherer S, Muraro A, Eigenmann PA, Ebisawa M, et al. ICON: food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:906–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cai SCS, Li W, Tian EAL, Allen JC, Tey HL. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in eczema and cancer association: a cohort study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2016;27(6):531–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calderon M, Cox L, Casale TB, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Multiple allergen and single allergen strategies in polysensitized patients: looking at the published evidence. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:929–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell RL, Hagan JB, Manivannan V, Decker WW, Kanthala AR, Bellolio MF, et al. Evaluation of national institute of allergy and infectious diseases/food allergy and anaphylaxis network criteria for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis in emergency department patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:748–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Visits to the ED for anaphylaxis nearly doubled in 7 years. 2015. [Cited 10 Sept 2015].
  22. Canonica GW, Bousquet J, Casale T, Lockey RF, Baena-Cagnani CE, Pawankar R, et al. Sub-lingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2009. World Allergy Organ J. 2009;2:233–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Canonica GW, Cox L, Pawankar R, Baena-Cagnani CE, Blaiss M, Bonini S, et al. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7:6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carson CG, Rasmussen MA, Thyssen JP, Menné T, Bisgaard H. Clinical presentation of atopic dermatitis by filaggrin gene mutation status during the first 7 years of life in a prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7:e48678.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Celik-Bilgili S, Mehl A, Verstege A, Staden U, Nocon M, Beyer K, et al. The predictive value of specific immunoglobulin E levels in serum for the outcome of oral food challenges. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:268–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chafen JJS, Newberry SJ, Riedl MA, Bravata DM, Maglione M, Suttorp MJ, et al. Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review. JAMA. 2010;303:1848–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheng A. Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis in infants and children. Paediatr Child Health. 2011;16:35–40.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Choo KJ, Simons E, Sheikh A. Glucocorticoids for the treatment of anaphylaxis: Cochrane systematic review. Allergy. 2010;65:1205–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Conners L, Waserman S. Food allergy—the nuts and bolts [Internet]. Parkhurst Exchange 2010. 2010. [Cited 25 May 2016].
  30. Didier A, Malling HJ, Worm M, Horak F, Sussman G, Melac M, et al. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300 IR 5 grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:568–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dranitsaris G, Ellis AK. Sublingual or subcutaneous immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis: an indirect analysis of efficacy, safety and cost. J Eval Clin Pract. 2014;20:225–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dretzke J, Meadows A, Novielli N, Huissoon A, Fry-Smith A, Meads C. Subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and indirect comparison. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:1361–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, Mesher D, Maleki SJ, Fisher HR, et al. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:984–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, Bahnson HT, Radulovic S, Santos AF, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:803–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Du Toit G, Sayre PH, Roberts G, Sever ML, Lawson K, Bahnson HT, et al. Effect of avoidance on peanut allergy after early peanut consumption. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:1435–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Durham SR, Emminger W, Kapp A, de Monchy JG, Rak S, Scadding GK, et al. SQ-standardized sublingual grass immunotherapy: confirmation of disease modification 2 years after 3 years of treatment in a randomized trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:717–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Emmett SE, Angus FJ, Fry JS, Lee PN. Perceived prevalence of peanut allergy in Great Britain and its association with other atopic conditions and with peanut allergy in other household members. Allergy. 1999;54:380–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleischer DM, Conover-Walker MK, Christie L, Burks AW, Wood RA. The natural progression of peanut allergy: resolution and the possibility of recurrence. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fleischer DM, Conover-Walker MK, Matsui EC, Wood RA. The natural history of tree nut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:1087–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graham-Rowe D. Lifestyle: when allergies go west. Nature. 2011;479:S2–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008;121:183–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gupta RS, Springston EE, Warrier MR, Smith B, Kumar R, Pongracic J, et al. The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hankin CS, Cox L. Allergy immunotherapy: what is the evidence for cost saving? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(4):363–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hockstadter E, Clarke A, De Schryver S, LaVieille S, Alizadehfar R, Joseph L, et al. Increasing visits for anaphylaxis and the benefits of early epinephrine administration: a 4-year study at a pediatric emergency department in Montreal, Canada. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:1888–90.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.02.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hon KL, Leung AKC, Barankin B. Barrier repair therapy in atopic dermatitis: an overview. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013;14:389–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horimukai K, Morita K, Narita M, Kondo M, Kitazawa H, Nozaki M, et al. Application of moisturizer to neonates prevents development of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;13:824–30.e6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Horimukai K, Morita K, Narita M, Kondo M, Kabashima S, Inoue E, et al. Transepidermal water loss measurement during infancy can predict the subsequent development of atopic dermatitis regardless of filaggrin mutations. Allergol Int. 2016;65:103–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hourihane JO, Dean TP, Warner JO. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges. BMJ. 1996;313:518–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hu Y, Chen J, Li H. Comparison of food allergy prevalence among Chinese infants in Chongqing, 2009 versus 1999. Pediatr Int. 2010;52:820–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jackson KD, Howie LD, Akinbami LJ. Trends in allergic conditions among children: United States, 1997-2011. NCHS Data Brief. 2013;(121):1–8.Google Scholar
  51. Johansson SGO, Bieber T, Dahl R, Friedmann PS, Lanier BQ, Lockey RF, et al. Revised nomenclature for allergy for global use: report of the Nomenclature Review Committee of the World Allergy Organization, October 2003. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:832–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kalavala M, Dohil MA. Calcineurin inhibitors in pediatric atopic dermatitis: a review of current evidence. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2011;12:15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Keith P, Desrosiers M, Laister T, Schellenberg RR, Waserman S. The burden of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Canada: perspectives of physicians and patients. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2012;8:7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kelleher M, Dunn-Galvin A, Hourihane JO, Murray D, Campbell LE, McLean WHI, et al. Skin barrier dysfunction measured by transepidermal water loss at 2 days and 2 months predates and predicts atopic dermatitis at 1 year. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:930–5.e1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kelleher MM, Dunn-Galvin A, Gray C, Murray DM, Kiely M, Kenny L, et al. Skin barrier impairment at birth predicts food allergy at 2 years of age. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:1111–6.e8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kotz D, Simpson CR, Sheikh A. Incidence, prevalence, and trends of general practitioner-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in England, 2001 to 2005. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:623–30.e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Legendre L, Barnetche T, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Meyer N, Murrell D, Paul C. Risk of lymphoma in patients with atopic dermatitis and the role of topical treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;72:992–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leung R, Ho A, Chan J, Choy D, Lai CK. Royal jelly consumption and hypersensitivity in the community. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997;27:333–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leysen J, Sabato V, Verweij MM, De Knop KJ, Bridts CH, De Clerck LS, et al. The basophil activation test in the diagnosis of immediate drug hypersensitivity. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2011;7:349–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lieberman P, Kemp SF, Oppenheimer JJ, Land I, Bernstein IL, Nicklas RA, et al. The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis: an updated practice parameter. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:483–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lieberman P, Camargo CA Jr, Bohlke K, Jick H, Miller RL, Sheikh A, et al. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis: findings of the American college of allergy, asthma and immunology epidemiology of anaphylaxis working group. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:596–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Oppenheimer J, Kemp SF, Lang DM. The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis practice parameter: 2010 update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:477–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lieberman P, Nicklas RA, Randolph C, Oppenheimer J, Bernstein D, Bernstein J, et al. Anaphylaxis—a practice parameter update 2015. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;115:341–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lin ST, Erekosima N, Kim JM, Ramanathan M, Suarez-Cuervo C, Chelladurai Y, et al. Sublingual immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: a systematic review. J Am Med Assoc. 2013;309:1278–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu AH, Jaramillo R, Sicherer SH, Wood RA, Bock SA, Burks AW, et al. National prevalence and risk factors for food allergy and relationship to asthma: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:798–806.e13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Majkowska-Wojciechowska B, Pełka J, Korzon L, Kozłowska A, Kaczała M, Jarzebska M, et al. Prevalence of allergy, patterns of allergic sensitization and allergy risk factors in rural and urban children. Allergy. 2007;62:1044–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Margolis DJ, Apter AJ, Gupta J, Hoffstad O, Papadopoulos M, Campbell LE, et al. The persistence of atopic dermatitis and filaggrin (FLG) mutations in a US longitudinal cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:912–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Margolis DJ, Abuabara K, Hoffstad OJ, Wan J, Raimondo D, Bilker WB. Association between malignancy and topical use of pimecrolimus. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:594–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McGowan EC, Keet CA. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(5):1216–1219.e5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McGrath JA. Profilaggrin, dry skin, and atopic dermatitis risk: size matters. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:10–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Merck Canada Inc. Grastek product monograph 2013. Kirkland, Quebec; 2013.Google Scholar
  72. Merck Canada Inc. Ragwitek product monograph 2014. Kirkland, Quebec; 2014.Google Scholar
  73. Moote W, Kim H. Allergen-specific immunotherapy. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011;7(Suppl 1):S5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Muraro A, Dreborg S, Halken S, Høst A, Niggemann B, Aalberse R, et al. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part II. Evaluation of methods in allergy prevention studies and sensitization markers. Definitions and diagnostic criteria of allergic diseases. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004;15:196–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nelson HS, Nolte H, Creticos P, Maloney J, Wu J, Bernstein DI. Efficacy and safety of timothy grass allergy immunotherapy tablet treatment in North American adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:72–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Assa’ad AH, Bahna SL, Bock SA, Sicherer SH, Teuber SS, et al. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(6 Suppl):S365–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nwaru BI, Takkinen H-M, Niemelä O, Kaila M, Erkkola M, Ahonen S, et al. Introduction of complementary foods in infancy and atopic sensitization at the age of 5 years: timing and food diversity in a Finnish birth cohort. Allergy. 2013;68:507–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Osborne NJ, Koplin JJ, Martin PE, Gurrin LC, Lowe AJ, Matheson MC, et al. Prevalence of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy using population-based sampling and predetermined challenge criteria in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:668–76.e1-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paladin Labs Inc. Oralair product monograph 2012. Montreal, Quebec; 2012.Google Scholar
  80. Palmer CNA, Irvine AD, Terron-Kwiatkowski A, Zhao Y, Liao H, Lee SP, et al. Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:441–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Perry TT, Pesek RD. Clinical manifestations of food allergy. Pediatr Ann. 2013;42:e106–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen J-M. The skin: an indispensable barrier. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:1063–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Radulovic S, Wilson D, Calderon M, Durham S. Systematic reviews of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Allergy. 2011;66:740–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rancé F, Dutau G, Abbal MM. Mustard allergy in children. Allergy. 2000;55:496–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reitamo S, Rustin M, Harper J, Kalimo K, Rubins A, Cambazard F, et al. A 4-year follow-up study of atopic dermatitis therapy with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment in children and adult patients. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:942–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rodríguez E, Baurecht H, Herberich E, Wagenpfeil S, Brown SJ, Cordell HJ, et al. Meta-analysis of filaggrin polymorphisms in eczema and asthma: robust risk factors in atopic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:1361–70.e7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rudders SA, Banerji A, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr. Age-related differences in the clinical presentation of food-induced anaphylaxis. J Pediatr. 2011;158:326–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sampson HA. Update on food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:805–819; quiz 820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sampson HA, Munoz-Furlon A, Campbell RL, Adkinson NF Jr, Bock A, Branum A, et al. Second symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report—second national institute of allergy and infectious disease/food allergy and anaphylaxis network symposium. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:391–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sandilands A, Sutherland C, Irvine AD, McLean WHI. Filaggrin in the frontline: role in skin barrier function and disease. J Cell Sci. 2009;122(Pt 9):1285–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Savage JH, Matsui EC, Skripak JM, Wood RA. The natural history of egg allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1413–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Scurlock AM, Lee LA, Burks AW. Food allergy in children. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2005;25:369–388, vii–viii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Segal AO, Ellis AK, Kim HL. CSACI position statement: safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors in the management of atopic dermatitis in children and adults. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2013;9:24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sicherer SH. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: case presentations and management lessons. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:149–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sicherer SH. Epidemiology of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:594–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. 9. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117(2 Suppl Mini-Primer):S470–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(2 Suppl 2):S116–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sicherer SH, Simons FER. Section on Allergy and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics. Self-injectable epinephrine for first-aid management of anaphylaxis. Pediatrics. 2007;119:638–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sicherer SH, Furlong TJ, Maes HH, Desnick RJ, Sampson HA, Gelb BD. Genetics of peanut allergy: a twin study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(1 Pt 1):53–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sicherer SH, Muñoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA. Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the United States determined by means of a random digit dial telephone survey: a 5-year follow-up study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:1203–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Siegfried EC, Jaworski JC, Hebert AA. Topical calcineurin inhibitors and lymphoma risk: evidence update with implications for daily practice. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013;14:163–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sigurgeirsson B, Boznanski A, Todd G, Vertruyen A, Schuttelaar M-LA, Zhu X, et al. Safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus in atopic dermatitis: a 5-year randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2015;135:597–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Silverberg JI, Nelson DB, Yosipovitch G. Addressing treatment challenges in atopic dermatitis with novel topical therapies. J Dermatolog Treat. 2016;11:1–9.Google Scholar
  104. Simons FER. Anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:S163–81.Google Scholar
  105. Simons FER. Anaphylaxis: assessment and management. In: Leung DYM, Szefler SJ, Bonilla FA, Akdis CA, Sampson HA, Heim A, editors. Pediatric allergy: principles and practice. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2016. p. 524–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Simons FER, Sampson HA. Anaphylaxis: unique aspects of clinical diagnosis and management in infants (birth to age 2 years). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:1125–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Simons FER, Sheikh A. Anaphylaxis: the acute episode and beyond. BMJ. 2013;346:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simons FER, Roberts JR, Gu X, Simons KJ. Epinephrine absorption in children with a history of anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101:33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Simons FER, Gu X, Simons KJ. Epinephrine absorption in adults: intramuscular versus subcutaneous injection. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108:871–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Simons FER, Ardusso LRF, Beatrice Bilò M, El-Gamal YM, Ledford DK, Ring J, Sanchez-Borges M, Senna GE, Sheikh A, Thong BY. World Allergy Organization Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Anaphylaxis. World Allergy Organ J. 2011;4(2):13–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Simpson EL, Chalmers JR, Hanifin JM, Thomas KS, Cork MJ, McLean WHI, et al. Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134:818–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Small P, Kim H. Allergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011;7(Suppl 1):S3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Soller L, Ben-Shoshan M, Harrington DW, Fragapane J, Joseph L, St Pierre Y, et al. Overall prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Canada. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:986–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spergel JM, Brown-Whitehorn TF, Cianferoni A, Shuker M, Wang M-L, Verma R, et al. Identification of causative foods in children with eosinophilic esophagitis treated with an elimination diet. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:461–7.e5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. The Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network [Internet]. 2016. Accessed 23 May 2016.
  116. Thyssen JP, Kezic S. Causes of epidermal filaggrin reduction and their role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134:792–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tsakok T, Marrs T, Mohsin M, Baron S, du Toit G, Till S, et al. Does atopic dermatitis cause food allergy? A systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:1071–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. van den Oord RAHM, Sheikh A. Filaggrin gene defects and risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b2433.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. van Ginkel CD, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Kollen BJ, Kukler J, Koppelman GH, Dubois AEJ. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin gene are associated with clinical reactivity to foods. Allergy. 2015;70:461–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Waserman S, Watson W. Food allergy. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011;7(Suppl 1):S7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Waserman S, Chad Z, Francoeur MJ, Small P, Stark D, Vander Leek TK, et al. Management of anaphylaxis in primary care: Canadian expert consensus recommendations. Allergy. 2010;65:1082–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wood RA, Camargo CA Jr, Lieberman P, Sampson HA, Schwartz LB, Zitt M, et al. Anaphylaxis in America: the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:461–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda Ciccolini
    • 1
  • Shannon French
    • 1
  • Mark Tenn
    • 1
  • Anne K. Ellis
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of MedicineQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations