Update in Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

  • A. Jay FreemanEmail author
  • Tatyana Hofmekler
  • John-Paul Berauer
  • Sirish Palle


The field of pediatric gastroenterology was first described in 1960 and has rapidly grown from a specialty that was only offered at a few select centers around the world to one that is now considered an absolutely necessity at any pediatric hospital (Thomson et al., J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 55:636–639, 2012). In the United States, there is ~1 pediatric gastroenterology provider per 100,000 children making it one of the largest pediatric subspecialty disciplines. However, due to patient volume, it is considered by the Children’s Hospital Association to be a subspecialty with a shortage of providers. With rapid growth comes considerable change in practice management and technological advancement. Given the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints (such as reflux, constipation, weight concerns and elevated transaminase levels) and the relative shortage of subspecialty providers, it is important for primary care providers to be up-to-date on common pediatric gastrointestinal and hepatology advancements. In this chapter we have highlighted some of the most important changes and advancements pertaining to common pediatric gastrointestinal and hepatic conditions that have occurred over the last 5–10 years and presented in a manner to best aid the primary care provider.


  1. Abu-El-Haija M, Lin TK, Palermo J. Update to the management of pediatric acute pancreatitis: highlighting areas in need of research. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58:689–93. Scholar
  2. Abu-El-Haija M, Wilhelm R, Heinzman C, et al. Early enteral nutrition in children with acute pancreatitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;62:453–6. Scholar
  3. Adams LA, Lymp JF, St Sauver J, et al. The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based cohort study. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:113–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation. Pediatrics. 2004;114:297–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers, Mastronarde JG, Anthonisen NR, et al. Efficacy of esomeprazole for treatment of poorly controlled asthma. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1487–99. Scholar
  6. Andorsky DJ, Lund DP, Lillehei CW, et al. Nutritional and other postoperative management of neonates with short bowel syndrome correlates with clinical outcomes. J Pediatr. 2001;139:27–33. Scholar
  7. Arias A, González-Cervera J, Tenias JM, Lucendo AJ. Efficacy of dietary interventions for inducing histologic remission in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:1639–48. Scholar
  8. Bai HX, Lowe ME, Husain SZ. What have we learned about acute pancreatitis in children? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;52:262–70. Scholar
  9. Bălănescu NR, Topor L, Ulici A, Djendov FB. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hyperlipidemia in an 11-year-old girl: a case report and review of literature. J Med Life. 2013;6:2–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldassano RN, Piccoli DA. Inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric and adolescent patients. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 1999;28:445–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baliga P, Alvarez S, Lindblad A, et al. Posttransplant survival in pediatric fulminant hepatic failure: the SPLIT experience. Liver Transpl. 2004;10:1364–71. Scholar
  12. Balistreri WF. Neonatal cholestasis. J Pediatr. 1985;106:171–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Balistreri WF, Bezerra JA. Whatever happened to "neonatal hepatitis"? Clin Liver Dis. 2006;10:27–53v. Scholar
  14. Barlow SE, Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007;120(Suppl 4):S164–92. Scholar
  15. Beattie RM, Nicholls SW, Domizio P, et al. Endoscopic assessment of the colonic response to corticosteroids in children with ulcerative colitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1996;22:373–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellin MD, Kerdsirichairat T, Beilman GJ, et al. Total pancreatectomy With islet autotransplantation improves quality of life in patients with refractory recurrent acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;
  17. Benninga MA, Faure C, Hyman PE, et al. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler. Gastroenterology. 2016;(150):1443–1455.e2.
  18. Bernal W, Wendon J. Acute liver failure. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1170–1. Scholar
  19. Bernstein CN, Fried M, Krabshuis JH, et al. World Gastroenterology Organization practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of IBD in 2010. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:112–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhutani VK, Stark AR, Lazzeroni LC, et al. Predischarge screening for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia identifies infants who need phototherapy. J Pediatr. 2013;162:477–482.e1. Scholar
  21. Bilzer M, Roggel F, Gerbes AL. Role of Kupffer cells in host defense and liver disease. Liver Int. 2006;26:1175–86. Scholar
  22. Bortolotti F, Verucchi G, Cammà C, et al. Long-term course of chronic hepatitis C in children: from viral clearance to end-stage liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1900–7. Scholar
  23. Boyer JL. New perspectives for the treatment of cholestasis: lessons from basic science applied clinically. J Hepatol. 2007;46:365–71. Scholar
  24. Boyer TD, Wright T, Manns MP. Zakim and Boyer's hepatology: a textbook of liver disease. Berlin: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.Google Scholar
  25. Bucuvalas J, Yazigi N, Squires RH. Acute liver failure in children. Clin Liver Dis. 2006;10:149–68vii. Scholar
  26. Bursch B. Psychological/cognitive behavioral treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:706–7. Scholar
  27. Chacko KR, Reinus J. Extrahepatic complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Liver Dis. 2016;20:387–401. Scholar
  28. Chalasani N. Statins and hepatotoxicity: focus on patients with fatty liver. Hepatology. 2005;41:690–5. Scholar
  29. Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, et al. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Hepatology. 2012;55:2005–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chan WW, Chiou E, Obstein KL, et al. The efficacy of proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of asthma in adults: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:620–9. Scholar
  31. Chang MH, Hsu HY, Hsu HC, et al. The significance of spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in childhood: with special emphasis on the clearance of hepatitis B e antigen before 3 years of age. Hepatology. 1995;22:1387–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chang M-H, Chen TH-H, Hsu H-M, et al. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma by universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus: the effect and problems. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:7953–7. Scholar
  33. Charlton MR, Burns JM, Pedersen RA, et al. Frequency and outcomes of liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1249–53. Scholar
  34. Chen C-L, Fan S-T, Lee S-G, et al. Living-donor liver transplantation: 12 years of experience in Asia. Transplantation. 2003;75:S6–11. Scholar
  35. Choudhury J, Sanyal AJ. Clinical aspects of fatty liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 2004;24:349–62. Scholar
  36. Christian JB, Arondekar B, Buysman EK, et al. Determining triglyceride reductions needed for clinical impact in severe hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Med. 2014;127:36–44.e1. Scholar
  37. Clarke P, Robinson MJ. Thickening milk feeds may cause necrotising enterocolitis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004;89:F280.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Cochran JB, Losek JD. Acute liver failure in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23:129–35. Scholar
  39. Contreras EM, Gupta SK. Steroids in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2014;43:345–56. Scholar
  40. Corte Della C, Mosca A, Vania A, et al. Pediatric liver diseases: current challenges and future perspectives. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;10:255–65. Scholar
  41. D'Albuquerque LAC, Gonzalez AM, Wahle RC, et al. Liver transplantation for subacute hepatocellular failure due to massive steatohepatitis after bariatric surgery. Liver Transpl. 2008;14:881–5. Scholar
  42. D'Alessandro A, Esposito D, Pesce M, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: from pathophysiology to treatment. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2015;6:150–8. Scholar
  43. Dani C, Pratesi S, Raimondi F, et al. Italian guidelines for the management and treatment of neonatal cholestasis. Ital J Pediatr. 2015;41:69. Scholar
  44. de Meij TGJ, Budding AE, Grasman ME, et al. Composition and diversity of the duodenal mucosa-associated microbiome in children with untreated coeliac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:530–6. Scholar
  45. de Onís M, Monteiro C, Akré J, Glugston G. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO global database on child growth. Bull World Health Organ. 1993;71:703–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Dellon ES, Gonsalves N, Hirano I, et al. ACG clinical guideline: evidenced based approach to the diagnosis and management of esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:679–92-quiz 693.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dellon ES, Speck O, Woodward K, et al. Distribution and variability of esophageal eosinophilia in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Mod Pathol. 2015;28:383–90. Scholar
  48. Denniston MM, Jiles RB, Drobeniuc J, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2010. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:293–300. Scholar
  49. Dent J, El-Serag HB, Wallander M-A, Johansson S. Epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Gut. 2005;54:710–7. Scholar
  50. Desai TK, Stecevic V, Chang C-H, et al. Association of eosinophilic inflammation with esophageal food impaction in adults. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61:795–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Drews RE, Weinberger SE. Thrombocytopenic disorders in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:347–51. Scholar
  52. Drossman DA, Hasler WL. Rome IV-functional gi disorders: disorders of gut-brain interaction. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:1257–61. Scholar
  53. Enestvedt BK, Tofani C, Lee DY, et al. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the pediatric population is safe and efficacious. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:649–54. Scholar
  54. Farrell GC, Larter CZ. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: from steatosis to cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2006;43:S99–S112. Scholar
  55. Fawaz R, Baumann U, Ekong U, et al. Guideline for the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in infants: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;1
  56. Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy--definition, nomenclature, diagnosis, and quantification: final report of the working party at the 11th World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna, 1998. Hepatology. 2002;35:716–21. Scholar
  57. Fish D, Kugathasan S. Inflammatory bowel disease. Adolesc Med Clin. 2004;15:67–90ix. Scholar
  58. Franciosi JP, Fiorino K, Ruchelli E, et al. Changing indications for upper endoscopy in children during a 20-year period. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;51:443–7. Scholar
  59. Friedt M, Welsch S. An update on pediatric endoscopy. Eur J Med Res. 2013;18:24. Scholar
  60. Furuta GT, Katzka DA. Eosinophilic esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1640–8. Scholar
  61. Giannini EG, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians. CMAJ. 2005;172:367–79. Scholar
  62. Giefer MJ, Kozarek RA. Technical outcomes and complications of pediatric ERCP. Surg Endosc. 2015;29:3543–50. Scholar
  63. Gieruszczak-Białek D, Konarska Z, Skórka A, et al. No effect of proton pump inhibitors on crying and irritability in infants: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr. 2015;166:767–70.e3. Scholar
  64. Gremse DA. GERD in the pediatric patient: management considerations. MedGenMed. 2004;6:13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P. Gastrointestinal clinical pharmacology of peppermint oil. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:607–11. Scholar
  66. Gupta SK, Vitanza JM, Collins MH. Efficacy and safety of oral budesonide suspension in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:66–76.e3. Scholar
  67. Gutierrez-Achury J, Coutinho de Almeida R, Wijmenga C. Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases. J Intern Med. 2011;269:591–603. Scholar
  68. Halmos EP, Power VA, Shepherd SJ, et al. A diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:67–75.e5. Scholar
  69. Halvorson L, Halsey K, Darwin P, Goldberg E. The safety and efficacy of therapeutic ERCP in the pediatric population performed by adult gastroenterologists. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58:3611–9. Scholar
  70. Hansen K, Horslen S. Metabolic liver disease in children. Liver Transpl. 2008;14:713–33. Scholar
  71. Hassall E. Endoscopy in children with GERD: “the way we were” and the way we should be. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1583–6. Scholar
  72. Hassall E, Kerr W, El-Serag HB. Characteristics of children receiving proton pump inhibitors continuously for up to 11 years duration. J Pediatr. 2007;150:262–267.e1. Scholar
  73. Henderson P, Casey A, Lawrence SJ, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of fecal calprotectin during the investigation of suspected pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:941–9. Scholar
  74. Heuschkel R, Salvestrini C, Beattie RM, et al. Guidelines for the management of growth failure in childhood inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14:839–49. Scholar
  75. Hill ID, Fasano A, Guandalini S, et al. NASPGHAN clinical report on the diagnosis and treatment of gluten-related disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;63:156–65. Scholar
  76. Hirsch W, Beck R, Behrmann C, et al. Reliability of cranial CT versus intracerebral pressure measurement for the evaluation of generalised cerebral oedema in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30:439–43. Scholar
  77. Hoerning A, Raub S, Dechêne A, et al. Diversity of disorders causing neonatal cholestasis - the experience of a tertiary pediatric center in Germany. Front Pediatr. 2014;2:65. Scholar
  78. Holmberg SD, Spradling PR, Moorman AC, Denniston MM. Hepatitis C in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1859–61. Scholar
  79. Holterman A-XL, Holterman M, Browne A, et al. Patterns of surgical weight loss and resolution of metabolic abnormalities in superobese bariatric adolescents. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:1633–9. Scholar
  80. Holterman A-XL, Guzman G, Fantuzzi G, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in severely obese adolescent and adult patients. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:591–7. Scholar
  81. Husain SZ, Morinville V, Pohl J, et al. Toxic-metabolic risk factors in pediatric pancreatitis: recommendations for diagnosis, management, and future research. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;62:609–17. Scholar
  82. Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szabó IR, et al. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:136–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hyams J, Crandall W, Kugathasan S, et al. Induction and maintenance infliximab therapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease in children. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:863–73-quiz 1165–6. Scholar
  84. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, et al. Functional disorders: children and adolescents. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:1456–1468.e2. Scholar
  85. Iacono G, Bonventre S, Scalici C, et al. Food intolerance and chronic constipation: manometry and histology study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;18:143–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Iovino P, Tremolaterra F, Boccia G, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome in childhood: visceral hypersensitivity and psychosocial aspects. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009;21:940–e74. Scholar
  87. Jensen ET, Kappelman MD, Kim HP, et al. Early life exposures as risk factors for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57:67–71. Scholar
  88. Jensen ET, Hoffman K, Shaheen NJ, et al. Esophageal eosinophilia is increased in rural areas with low population density: results from a national pathology database. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:668–75. Scholar
  89. Jeppesen PB, Mortensen PB. The influence of a preserved colon on the absorption of medium chain fat in patients with small bowel resection. Gut. 1998;43:478–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Kandula L, Lowe ME. Etiology and outcome of acute pancreatitis in infants and toddlers. J Pediatr. 2008;152:106–10.e1. Scholar
  91. Kavitt RT, Penson DF, Vaezi MF. Eosinophilic esophagitis: dilate or medicate? A cost analysis model of the choice of initial therapy. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27:418–23. Scholar
  92. Kelly DA, Davenport M. Current management of biliary atresia. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:1132–5. Scholar
  93. Kelly DA, Stanton A. Jaundice in babies: implications for community screening for biliary atresia. BMJ. 1995;310:1172–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Kemmer N, Neff GW, Franco E, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease epidemic and its implications for liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2013;96:860–2. Scholar
  95. Khanna R, MacDonald JK, Levesque BG. Peppermint oil for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014;48:505–12. Scholar
  96. Kiefte-de Jong JC, Escher JC, Arends LR, et al. Infant nutritional factors and functional constipation in childhood: the generation R study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:940–5. Scholar
  97. Kierkus J, Oracz G, Korczowski B, et al. Comparative safety and efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in paediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Drug Saf. 2014;37:309–16. Scholar
  98. Kiljander T, Junghard O, Beckman O, Lind T. Effect of esomeprazole 40 mg once or twice daily on asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:1042–8. Scholar
  99. Kiljander T, Rantanen T, Kellokumpu I, et al. Comparison of the effects of esomeprazole and fundoplication on airway responsiveness in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Clin Respir J. 2013;7:281–7. Scholar
  100. Kirschner BS. Safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 1998;115:813–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kitamoto T, Kitamoto A, Yoneda M, et al. Genome-wide scan revealed that polymorphisms in the PNPLA3, SAMM50, and PARVB genes are associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Japan. Hum Genet. 2013;132:783–92. Scholar
  102. Kotlyar DS, Osterman MT, Diamond RH, et al. A systematic review of factors that contribute to hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:36–41.e1. Scholar
  103. Krasko A, Deshpande K, Bonvino S. Liver failure, transplantation, and critical care. Crit Care Clin. 2003;19:155–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kugathasan S, Judd RH, Hoffmann RG, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease in Wisconsin: a statewide population-based study. J Pediatr. 2003;143:525–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kumar S, Ooi CY, Werlin S, et al. Risk factors associated with pediatric acute recurrent and chronic pancreatitis: lessons from INSPPIRE. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;
  106. Kurtovic J, Riordan SM, Williams R. Fulminant hepatic failure. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2005;8:503–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lakatos P-L. Recent trends in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases: up or down? World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:6102–8. Scholar
  108. Lashner BA. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 1995;24:467–74.Google Scholar
  109. Lee C, Gong Y, Brok J, et al. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006:CD004790.
  110. Lee J, Shuker M, Brown-Whitehorn T, et al. Oral viscous budesonide can be successfully delivered through a variety of vehicles to treat eosinophilic esophagitis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;
  111. Lewis JR, Mohanty SR. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review and update. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:560–78. Scholar
  112. Lightdale JR, Gremse DA, Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (2013) Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician. Pediatrics 131:e1684–e1695. Scholar
  113. Littner MR, Leung FW, Ballard ED, et al. Effects of 24 weeks of lansoprazole therapy on asthma symptoms, exacerbations, quality of life, and pulmonary function in adult asthmatic patients with acid reflux symptoms. Chest. 2005;128:1128–35. Scholar
  114. Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, et al. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms. London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Society of Gastroenterology; 2013. p. 43–52.Google Scholar
  115. Mack DR, Langton C, Markowitz J, et al. Laboratory values for children with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease. Pediatrics. 2007;119:1113–9. Scholar
  116. Mack CL, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Gupta N, et al. NASPGHAN practice guidelines: diagnosis and management of hepatitis C infection in infants, children, and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:838–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mahajan R, Liu SJ, Klevens RM, Holmberg SD. Indications for testing among reported cases of HCV infection from enhanced hepatitis surveillance sites in the United States, 2004–2010. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:1445–9. Scholar
  118. Markowitz J, Grancher K, Kohn N, et al. A multicenter trial of 6-mercaptopurine and prednisone in children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:895–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Markowitz JE, Spergel JM, Ruchelli E, Liacouras CA. Elemental diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adolescents. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:777–82. Scholar
  120. Martin AJ, Pratt N, Kennedy JD, et al. Natural history and familial relationships of infant spilling to 9 years of age. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1061–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Matsui A, Ishikawa T. Identification of infants with biliary atresia in Japan. Lancet. 1994;343:925.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. McGill MR, Sharpe MR, Williams CD, et al. The mechanism underlying acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and mice involves mitochondrial damage and nuclear DNA fragmentation. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1574–83. Scholar
  123. McMahon BJ, Alward WL, Hall DB, et al. Acute hepatitis B virus infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. J Infect Dis. 1985;151:599–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mehta NM, Corkins MR, Lyman B, et al. Defining pediatric malnutrition: a paradigm shift toward etiology-related definitions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2013;37:460–81. Scholar
  125. Menard-Katcher C, Swerdlow MP, Mehta P, et al. Contribution of esophagram to the evaluation of complicated pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;61:541–6. Scholar
  126. Milla PJ, Atherton DA, Leonard JV, et al. Disordered intestinal function in glycogen storage disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1978;1:155–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Mofrad P, Contos MJ, Haque M, et al. Clinical and histologic spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with normal ALT values. Hepatology. 2003;37:1286–92. Scholar
  128. Molina-Infante J, Katzka DA, Dellon ES. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia: a historical perspective on a novel and evolving entity. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2015;107:29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Molleston JP, White F, Teckman J, Fitzgerald JF. Obese children with steatohepatitis can develop cirrhosis in childhood. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:2460–2. Scholar
  130. Molleston JP, Schwimmer JB, Yates KP, et al. Histological abnormalities in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. J Pediatr. 2014;164:707–713.e3. Scholar
  131. Morinville VD, Barmada MM, Lowe ME. Increasing incidence of acute pancreatitis at an American pediatric tertiary care center: is greater awareness among physicians responsible? Pancreas. 2010;39:5–8. Scholar
  132. Mottin CC, Moretto M, Padoin AV, et al. The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg. 2004;14:635–7. Scholar
  133. Mukkada VA, Furuta GT. Management of refractory eosinophilic esophagitis. Dig Dis. 2014;32:134–8. Scholar
  134. Narkewicz MR, Dell Olio D, Karpen SJ, et al. Pattern of diagnostic evaluation for the causes of pediatric acute liver failure: an opportunity for quality improvement. J Pediatr. 2009;155:801–806.e1. Scholar
  135. Nascimbeni F, Pais R, Bellentani S, et al. From NAFLD in clinical practice to answers from guidelines. J Hepatol. 2013;59:859–71. Scholar
  136. National Center for Health Statistics (US). Health, United States, 2011: with special feature on socioeconomic status and Health. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2012.Google Scholar
  137. Nelson SP, Chen EH, Syniar GM, Christoffel KK. Prevalence of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux during childhood: a pediatric practice-based survey. Pediatric Practice Research Group. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:150–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Newton KP, Singer SA. Celiac disease in children and adolescents: special considerations. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:479–96. Scholar
  139. Nio M, Ohi R, Miyano T, et al. Five- and 10-year survival rates after surgery for biliary atresia: a report from the Japanese Biliary Atresia Registry. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:997–1000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Nitsche C, Maertin S, Scheiber J, et al. Drug-induced pancreatitis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2012;14:131–8. Scholar
  141. Nobili V, Vajro P, Dezsofi A, et al. Indications and limitations of bariatric intervention in severely obese children and adolescents with and without nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee position statement. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;60:550–61. Scholar
  142. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014;311:806–14. Scholar
  143. O'Keefe SJD, Buchman AL, Fishbein TM, et al. Short bowel syndrome and intestinal failure: consensus definitions and overview. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(1):6–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Oliva-Hemker M, Fiocchi C. Etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease: the importance of the pediatric perspective. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2002;8:112–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Ong JP, Aggarwal A, Krieger D, et al. Correlation between ammonia levels and the severity of hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Med. 2003;114:188–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Paarlahti P, Kurppa K, Ukkola A, et al. Predictors of persistent symptoms and reduced quality of life in treated coeliac disease patients: a large cross-sectional study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:75. Scholar
  147. Park JH. Role of colonoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric lower gastrointestinal disorders. Korean J Pediatr. 2010;53:824–9. Scholar
  148. Park AJ, Latif SU, Ahmad MU, et al. A comparison of presentation and management trends in acute pancreatitis between infants/toddlers and older children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;51:167–70. Scholar
  149. Patton HM, Lavine JE, Van Natta ML, et al. Clinical correlates of histopathology in pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1961–1971.e2. Scholar
  150. Pediatric Gastroenterology Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics, Bhatia V, Bavdekar A, et al. Management of acute liver failure in infants and children: consensus statement of the pediatric gastroenterology chapter, Indian academy of pediatrics. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50:477–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA, Habicht JP. Epidemiologic evidence for a potentiating effect of malnutrition on child mortality. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:1130–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA, Schroeder DG, Habicht JP. The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:443–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Perminow G, Frigessi A, Rydning A, et al. Incidence and clinical presentation of IBD in children: comparison between prospective and retrospective data in a selected Norwegian population. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:1433–9. Scholar
  154. Peters NJ, Mahajan JK, Bawa M, et al. Esophageal perforations due to foreign body impaction in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2015;50:1260–3. Scholar
  155. Peterson KA, Boynton KK. Which patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) should receive elemental diets versus other therapies? Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2014;16:364. Scholar
  156. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1131–5. Scholar
  157. Pohl JF, Uc A. Paediatric pancreatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015;31:380–6. Scholar
  158. Polson J, Lee WM, American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. AASLD position paper: the management of acute liver failure. Hepatology. 2005;41:1179–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. WHO Publication. Hepatitis B vaccines: WHO position paper—recommendations. Vaccine. 2010;28:589–90. Scholar
  160. Rahman T, Hodgson H. Clinical management of acute hepatic failure. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27:467–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Rahman I, Patel P, Boger P, et al. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in paediatric gastroenterology. World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;7:169–82. Scholar
  162. Rampertab SD, Pooran N, Brar P, et al. Trends in the presentation of celiac disease. Am J Med. 2006;119:355.e9–14. Scholar
  163. Raphael BP, Duggan C. Prevention and treatment of intestinal failure-associated liver disease in children. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:341–7. Scholar
  164. Ravi K, Talley NJ, Smyrk TC, et al. Low grade esophageal eosinophilia in adults: an unrecognized part of the spectrum of eosinophilic esophagitis? Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:1981–6. Scholar
  165. Rodríguez-Sánchez J, Gómez Torrijos E, López Viedma B, et al. Efficacy of IgE-targeted vs empiric six-food elimination diets for adult eosinophilic oesophagitis. Allergy. 2014;69:936–42. Scholar
  166. Rosenthal P, Blanckaert N, Kabra PM, Thaler MM. Formation of bilirubin conjugates in human newborns. Pediatr Res. 1986;20:947–50. Scholar
  167. Rudolph CD, Mazur LJ, Liptak GS, et al. Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children: recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;32(Suppl 2):S1–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Ruemmele FM, Sauvat F, Colomb V, et al. Seventeen years after successful small bowel transplantation: long term graft acceptance without immune tolerance. Gut. 2006;55:903–4. Scholar
  169. Saadeh S, Younossi ZM, Remer EM, et al. The utility of radiological imaging in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:745–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Saito T, Terui K, Mitsunaga T, et al. Role of pediatric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in an era stressing less-invasive imaging modalities. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;59:204–9. Scholar
  171. Sandborn WJ, Van Assche G, Reinisch W, et al. Adalimumab induces and maintains clinical remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:257–65.e1–3. Scholar
  172. Saps M, Pensabene L, Turco R, et al. Rotavirus gastroenteritis: precursor of functional gastrointestinal disorders? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:580–3. Scholar
  173. Sauer CG, Middleton JP, McCracken C, et al. Magnetic resonance enterography healing and magnetic resonance enterography remission predicts improved outcome in pediatric Crohn disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;62:378–83. Scholar
  174. Schwimmer JB, Deutsch R, Rauch JB, et al. Obesity, insulin resistance, and other clinicopathological correlates of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Pediatr. 2003;143:500–5. Scholar
  175. Schwimmer JB, Behling C, Newbury R, et al. Histopathology of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005;42:641–9. Scholar
  176. Schwimmer JB, Deutsch R, Kahen T, et al. Prevalence of fatty liver in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1388–93. Scholar
  177. Schwimmer JB, Newton KP, Awai HI, et al. Paediatric gastroenterology evaluation of overweight and obese children referred from primary care for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;38:1267–77. Scholar
  178. Schwimmer JB, Middleton MS, Behling C, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and liver histology as biomarkers of hepatic steatosis in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2015;61:1887–95. Scholar
  179. Shanmugam NP, Dhawan A. Selection criteria for liver transplantation in paediatric acute liver failure: the saga continues. Pediatr Transplant. 2011;15:5–6. Scholar
  180. Sheikh S, Stephen T, Howell L, Eid N. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants with wheezing. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1999;28:181–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Shi Z, Yang Y, Wang H, et al. Breastfeeding of newborns by mothers carrying hepatitis B virus: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165:837–46. Scholar
  182. Singer AL, Olthoff KM, Kim H, et al. Role of plasmapheresis in the management of acute hepatic failure in children. Ann Surg. 2001;234:418–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. Singh S, Allen AM, Wang Z, et al. Fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver vs nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of paired-biopsy studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:643–54.e1–9-quiz e39–40. Scholar
  184. Slae M, Persad R, Leung AJ-T, et al. Role of environmental factors in the development of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60:3364–72. Scholar
  185. Smits MJ, van Wijk MP, Langendam MW, et al. Association between gastroesophageal reflux and pathologic apneas in infants: a systematic review. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014;26:1527–38. Scholar
  186. Sokal EM, Paganelli M, Wirth S, et al. Management of chronic hepatitis B in childhood: ESPGHAN clinical practice guidelines: consensus of an expert panel on behalf of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. J Hepatol. 2013;59:814–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Squires RH. Acute liver failure in children. Semin Liver Dis. 2008;28:153–66. Scholar
  188. Squires RH, Shneider BL, Bucuvalas J, et al. Acute liver failure in children: the first 348 patients in the pediatric acute liver failure study group. J Pediatr. 2006;148:652–8. Scholar
  189. Squires RH, Duggan C, Teitelbaum DH, et al. Natural history of pediatric intestinal failure: initial report from the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium. J Pediatr. 2012;161:723–8.e2. Scholar
  190. Størdal K, White RA, Eggesbø M. Early feeding and risk of celiac disease in a prospective birth cohort. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e1202–9. Scholar
  191. Straumann A, Bussmann C, Zuber M, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: analysis of food impaction and perforation in 251 adolescent and adult patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:598–600. Scholar
  192. Stravitz RT, Kramer AH, Davern T, et al. Intensive care of patients with acute liver failure: recommendations of the U.S. Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2498–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Suchy FJ. Neonatal cholestasis. Pediatr Rev. 2004;25:388–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Suchy FJ, Burdelski M, Tomar BS, Sokol RJ. Cholestatic liver disease: working group report of the first world congress of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002;35(Suppl 2):S89–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Szabo FK, Fei L, Cruz LA, Abu-El-Haija M. Early enteral nutrition and aggressive fluid resuscitation are associated with improved clinical outcomes in acute pancreatitis. J Pediatr. 2015;167:397–402.e1. Scholar
  196. Tabbers MM, DiLorenzo C, Berger MY, et al. Evaluation and treatment of functional constipation in infants and children: evidence-based recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58:258–74. Scholar
  197. Tassopoulos NC, Papaevangelou GJ, Sjogren MH, et al. Natural history of acute hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatitis in Greek adults. Gastroenterology. 1987;92:1844–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Taylor SA, Whitington PF. Neonatal acute liver failure. Liver Transpl. 2016;22:677–85. Scholar
  199. Temiz A. Efficiency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in pediatric surgical practice. World J Clin Pediatr. 2015;4:113–9. Scholar
  200. Thompson JS, Weseman R, Rochling FA, Mercer DF. Current management of the short bowel syndrome. Surg Clin North Am. 2011;91:493–510. Scholar
  201. Thomson M, Belsha D. Endoscopic management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding in children: time for a radical rethink. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:206–10. Scholar
  202. Tilney HS, Constantinides V, Ioannides AS, et al. Pouch-anal anastomosis vs straight ileoanal anastomosis in pediatric patients: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1799–808. Scholar
  203. Tran TH. Advances in pediatric celiac disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26:585–9. Scholar
  204. Trauner M, Meier PJ, Boyer JL. Molecular pathogenesis of cholestasis. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1217–27. Scholar
  205. Trauner M, Fickert P, Halilbasic E, Moustafa T. Lessons from the toxic bile concept for the pathogenesis and treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2008;158:542–8. Scholar
  206. Trivedi CD, Pitchumoni CS. Drug-induced pancreatitis: an update. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39:709–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Troendle DM, Abraham O, Huang R, Barth BA. Factors associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis and the effect of pancreatic duct stenting in a pediatric population. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;81:1408–16. Scholar
  208. Turner D, Travis SPL, Griffiths AM, et al. Consensus for managing acute severe ulcerative colitis in children: a systematic review and joint statement from ECCO, ESPGHAN, and the Porto IBD Working Group of ESPGHAN. London: Nature Publishing Group; 2011. p. 574–88.Google Scholar
  209. Vajro P, Lenta S, Socha P, et al. Diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: position paper of the ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;54:700–13. Scholar
  210. Vandenplas Y, Rudolph CD, Di Lorenzo C, et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:498–547.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Vaquero J, Fontana RJ, Larson AM, et al. Complications and use of intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with acute liver failure and severe encephalopathy. Liver Transpl. 2005;11:1581–9. Scholar
  212. Venigalla S, Gourley GR. Neonatal cholestasis. Semin Perinatol. 2004;28:348–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Vernon G, Baranova A, Younossi ZM. Systematic review: the epidemiology and natural history of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34:274–85. Scholar
  214. Vos MB. NASPGHAN clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;64(2):319–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wade J, Rolando N, Philpott-Howard J, Wendon J. Timing and aetiology of bacterial infections in a liver intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2003;53:144–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Wang Y, Parker CE, Feagan BG, MacDonald JK (2016) Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000544.
  217. Welsh JA, Karpen S, Vos MB. Increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among United States adolescents, 1988–1994 to 2007–2010. J Pediatr. 2013;162:496–500.e1. Scholar
  218. Weng H-L, Cai X, Yuan X, et al. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure. Front Physiol. 2015;6:178. Scholar
  219. Werlin SL, Kugathasan S, Frautschy BC. Pancreatitis in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;37:591–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Whitington PF. Gestational alloimmune liver disease and neonatal hemochromatosis. Semin Liver Dis. 2012;32:325–32. Scholar
  221. Whitington PF, Hibbard JU. High-dose immunoglobulin during pregnancy for recurrent neonatal haemochromatosis. Lancet. 2004;364:1690–8. Scholar
  222. Yang C-FJ, Duro D, Zurakowski D, et al. High prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in children with intestinal failure: a longitudinal study. J Pediatr. 2011;159:39–44.e1. Scholar
  223. Yıldırım AE, Altun R, Ocal S, et al. The safety and efficacy of ERCP in the pediatric population with standard scopes: does size really matter? Spring. 2016;5:128. Scholar
  224. Yoneda M, Mawatari H, Fujita K, et al. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by measurement of stiffness in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Dig Liver Dis. 2008;40:371–8. Scholar
  225. Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Afendy M, et al. Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:524–530.e1-quiz e60. Scholar
  226. Zevit N, Shamir R. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;60:696–701. Scholar
  227. Zhang Y, Li L, Guo C, et al. Effects of probiotic type, dose and treatment duration on irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by Rome III criteria: a meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2016;16:62. Scholar
  228. Zholudev A, Zurakowski D, Young W, et al. Serologic testing with ANCA, ASCA, and anti-OmpC in children and young adults with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: diagnostic value and correlation with disease phenotype. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:2235–41. Scholar
  229. Zsoldos F, Párniczky A, Mosztbacher D, et al. Pain in the early phase of pediatric pancreatitis (PINEAPPLE trial): pre-study protocol of a multinational prospective clinical trial. Digestion. 2016;93:121–6. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Jay Freeman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tatyana Hofmekler
    • 1
  • John-Paul Berauer
    • 1
  • Sirish Palle
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric GastroenterologyHepatology and Nutrition, Emory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations