Update in Adolescent Medicine

  • Raina V. VossEmail author
  • Emily Ruedinger


Updates in Adolescent Medicine provides an overview of topics, which have been evolving over the past two decades. In this chapter, we provide current reviews of the following topics:
  1. 1.

    Adolescent development

  2. 2.

    Psychosocial and risk behavior assessment of adolescents

  3. 3.

    Substance use (specifically marijuana) in adolescents

  4. 4.

    Adolescent gynecology (including contraception, management of abnormal uterine bleeding, and PCOS)

  5. 5.

    Providing care to LGBTQ adolescents and families

  6. 6.

    The role of technology and media in the care of adolescents

  7. 7.

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care



Adolescent Marijuana Contraception Long acting reversible contraception Abnormal uterine bleeding LGBTQ youth Media Transitions Youth Screening Risk behavior 


  1. Adeyemi-Fowode OA, Santos XM, Dietrich JE, Srivaths L. Levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine device use in adolescent females with heavy menstrual bleeding and bleeding disorders: single institution review. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol [Internet]. 2017;30(4):479–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed SP, Bittencourt-Hewitt A, Sebastian CL. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence. Dev Cogn Neurosci [Internet]. 2015;15:11–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitken M, VanderLaan DP, Wasserman L, Stojanovski S, Zucker KJ. Self-harm and suicidality in children referred for gender dysphoria. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016;55(6):513–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence. Contraception for Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e1244–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Endocrinology. Physical changes during puberty [Internet]. 2015. [Cited 5 Jul 2016].
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, Transitions Clinical Report Authoring Group, Cooley WC, Sagerman PJ. Supporting the health care transition from adolescence to adulthood in the medical home. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2011;128(1):182–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Communications and Media. Children, adolescents, and the media. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2013;132(5):958–61.
  8. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Committee opinion on menstrual manipulation for adolescents with disabilities. 2016;128(2):418–9.Google Scholar
  9. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Adolescents and long-acting reversible contraception: implants and intrauterine devices. Committee opinion no. 539. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120:982–8.Google Scholar
  10. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG committee opinion no. 557: management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Obstet Gynecol [Internet]. 2013;121(4):891–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion on menstruation in girls and adolescents: using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Committee Opinion No. 651. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126:143–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed.,Washington D.C: American Psychiatric Association 2013.Google Scholar
  13. Anthony JC, Petronis KR. Early-onset drug use and risk of later drug problems. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 1995;40(1):9–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barkus E. High-potency cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. Evid Based Ment Health [Internet]. 2016;19(2):54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blakemore S-J. Imaging brain development: the adolescent brain. Neuroimage [Internet]. 2012;61(2):397–406. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brook JS, Lee JY, Finch SJ, Seltzer N, Brook DW. Adult work commitment, financial stability, and social environment as related to trajectories of marijuana use beginning in adolescence. Subst Abus [Internet]. 2013;34(3):298–305. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Cannon M, McClay J, Murray R, Harrington H, et al. Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry [Internet]. 2005;57(10):1117–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2010: adapted from the World Health Organization medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 4th edition. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(RR04):1–6.Google Scholar
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. 2015.Google Scholar
  20. Chang JP-C, Hung C-C. Problematic internet use. In: Rey J, editor. IACAPAP e-textbook of child and adolescent mental health. Geneva: International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions; 2012.Google Scholar
  21. Chen C-Y, Storr CL, Anthony JC. Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems. Addict Behav [Internet]. 2009;34(3):319–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheng L, Che Y, Gülmezoglu AM. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2012;(8):CD001324.
  23. Chick CF, et al. J Neurosci [Internet]. 2015;35(40):13539–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Christie D, Viner R. Adolescent development. BMJ [Internet]. 2005;330(7486):301–4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chu PY, Maslow GR, von Isenburg M, Chung RJ. Systematic review of the impact of transition interventions for adolescents with chronic illness on transfer from pediatric to adult healthcare. J Pediatr Nurs. 2015;30(5):e19–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chumlea WC, Schubert CM, Roche AF, Kulin HE, Lee PA, Himes JH, et al. Age at menarche and racial comparisons in US girls. Pediatrics. 2003;111(1):110–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman DL, Rosoff PM. The legal authority of mature minors to consent to general medical treatment. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2013;131(4):786–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Committee on Substance Abuse, Committee on Adolescence. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2015;135(3):584–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Committee on Substance Abuse, Levy SJL, Kokotailo PK. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for pediatricians. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2011;128(5):e1330–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Daling JR, Doody DR, Sun X, Trabert BL, Weiss NS, Chen C, et al. Association of marijuana use and the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer [Internet]. 2009;115(6):1215–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health. National survey of children with special health care needs. n.d.Google Scholar
  32. Davis AM, Brown RF, Taylor JL, Epstein RA, McPheeters ML. Transition care for children with special health care needs. Pediatrics. 2014;134(5):900–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Vries ALC, Steensma TD, Doreleijers TAH, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study. J Sex Med [Internet]. 2011;8(8):2276–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. de Vries ALC, McGuire JK, Steensma TD, Wagenaar ECF, Doreleijers TAH, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2014;134(4):696–704. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dixon SD, Stein MT, editors. Encounters with children: pediatric behavior and development. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier; 2006.Google Scholar
  36. Emans SJ, Laufer MR. Pediatric and adolescent gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2012.Google Scholar
  37. Fergusson DM, Boden JM. Cannabis use and later life outcomes. Addiction [Internet]. 2008;103(6):969–76; discussion 977–8. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Finer LB, Philbin JM. Sexual initiation, contraceptive use, and pregnancy among young adolescents. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2013;131(5):886–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gemzell-Danielsson K. Mechanism of action of emergency contraception. Contraception [Internet]. 2010;82(5):404–409. Elsevier Inc. Scholar
  40. Glasier AF, Cameron ST, Fine PM, Logan SJ, Casale W, Van Horn J, et al. Ulipristal acetate versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a randomised non-inferiority trial and meta-analysis. Lancet [Internet]. 2010;375(9714):555–62. Elsevier Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Glasier A, Cameron ST, Blithe D, Scherrer B, Mathe H, Levy D, et al. Can we identify women at risk of pregnancy despite using emergency contraception? Data from randomized trials of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel. Contraception [Internet]. 2011;84(4):363–7. Elsevier Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gleason KA, Birnbaum SG, Shukla A, Ghose S. Susceptibility of the adolescent brain to cannabinoids: long-term hippocampal effects and relevance to schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry [Internet]. 2012;2:e199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goldenring J, Rosen D. Getting into adolescent heads: an essential update. Contemp Pediatr. 2004;21:76.Google Scholar
  44. Government of Canada. Understanding the new access to cannabis for medical purposes regulations [Internet]. 2016. [Cited 5 Dec 2017].
  45. Grant BF, Dawson DA. Age of onset of drug use and its association with DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abuse [Internet]. 1998;10(2):163–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gridley SJ, Crouch JM, Evans Y, Eng W, Antoon E, Lyapustina M, et al. Youth and caregiver perspectives on barriers to gender-affirming health care for transgender youth. J Adolesc Health [Internet]. 2016;59(3):254–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gupta J, Kai J, Middleton L, Pattison H, Gray R, Daniels J. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system versus medical therapy for menorrhagia. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2013;368(2):128–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guttmacher Institute. American teens’ sexual and reproductive health [Internet]. Guttmacher Institute; 2014. [Cited 28 Apr 2016].
  49. Guttmacher Institute. An overview of minors’ consent law. n.d.Google Scholar
  50. Harrison AM, Heritier F, Childs BG, Bostwick JM, Dziadzko MA. Systematic review of the use of phytochemicals for management of pain in cancer therapy. Biomed Res Int [Internet]. 2015;2015:506327. Google Scholar
  51. Hartman RL, Huestis MA. Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clin Chem [Internet]. 2013;59(3):478–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hashibe M, Morgenstern H, Cui Y, Tashkin DP, Zhang Z-F, Cozen W, et al. Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev [Internet]. 2006;15(10):1829–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hasin DS, Saha TD, Kerridge BT, Goldstein RB, Chou SP, Zhang H, et al. Prevalence of Marijuana use disorders in the United States between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. JAMA Psychiatry [Internet]. 2015;72(12):1235–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hayford SR, Furstenberg FF. Delayed adulthood, delayed desistance? Trends in the age distribution of problem behaviors. J Res Adolesc [Internet]. 2008;18(2):285–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hazen E, Schlozman S, Beresin E. Adolescent psychological development: a review. Pediatr Rev [Internet]. 2008;29(5):161–7; quiz 168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hidalgo M, Bahamondes L, Perrotti M, Diaz J, Dantas-Monteiro C, Petta C, et al. Contraception [Internet]. 2002;65(2):129–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Higham JM, O’Brien PM, Shaw RW. Assessment of menstrual blood loss using a pictorial chart. Br J Obstet Gynaecol [Internet]. 1990;97(8):734–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Holland G, Tiggemann M. A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes. Body Image [Internet]. 2016;17:100–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holland-Hall C. Heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents: normal variant or a bleeding disorer? Contemp Ob/Gyn [Internet]. 2013;58(1):34–47. Google Scholar
  60. Hood KK, Rausch JR, Dolan LM. Depressive symptoms predict change in glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: rates, magnitude, and moderators of change. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011;12:718–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Huang GC, Unger JB, Soto D, Fujimoto K, Pentz MA, Jordan-Marsh M, et al. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use. J Adolesc Health [Internet]. 2014;54(5):508–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jacobson C, Bailin A, Milanaik R, Adesman A. Adolescent health implications of new age technology. Pediatr Clin North Am [Internet]. 2016;63(1):183–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jain A, Petty EM, Jaber RM, Tackett S, Purkiss J, Fitzgerald J, et al. What is appropriate to post on social media? Ratings from students, faculty members and the public. Med Educ [Internet]. 2014;48(2):157–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Katzenellenbogen R. HEADSS: the “Review of Systems” for Adolescents. Virtual Mentor [Internet]. 2005;7(3).
  65. Kawabe K, Horiuchi F, Ochi M, Oka Y, Ueno S-I. Internet addiction: prevalence and relationship with mental states in adolescents. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci [Internet]. 2016;70(9):405–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Keen L, Blanden G, Rehmani N. Lifetime marijuana use and sexually transmitted infection history in a sample of Black college students. Addict Behav [Internet]. 2016;60:203–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kreukels BPC, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7(8):466–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar N, Brown JD. Access barriers to long acting reversible contraceptives for adolescents. J Adolesc Heal [Internet]. 2016;1–6. Elsevier Inc.
  69. Lacson JCA, Carroll JD, Tuazon E, Castelao EJ, Bernstein L, Cortessis VK. Population-based case-control study of recreational drug use and testis cancer risk confirms an association between marijuana use and nonseminoma risk. Cancer [Internet]. 2012;118(21):5374–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Langenfeld SJ, Sudbeck C, Luers T, Adamson P, Cook G, Schenarts PJ. The glass houses of attending surgeons: an assessment of unprofessional behavior on Facebook among practicing surgeons. J Surg Educ [Internet]. 2015;72(6):e280–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lenné MG, Dietze PM, Triggs TJ, Walmsley S, Murphy B, Redman JR. The effects of cannabis and alcohol on simulated arterial driving: influences of driving experience and task demand. Accid Anal Prev. 2010;42:857–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lindley LL, Walsemann KM. Sexual orientation and risk of pregnancy among New York city high-school students. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(7):1379–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lisdahl Medina K, Hanson KL, Schweinsburg AD, Cohen-Zion M, Nagel BJ, Tapert SF. Neuropsychological functioning in adolescent marijuana users: subtle deficits detectable after a month of abstinence. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2007;13(5):807–20.Google Scholar
  74. Lotstein DS, McPherson M, Strickland B, Newacheck PW. Transition planning for youth with special health care needs: results from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Pediatrics. 2005;115(6):1562–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lydecker JA, Cotter EW, Palmberg AA, Simpson C, Kwitowski M, White K, et al. Does this Tweet make me look fat? A content analysis of weight stigma on Twitter. Eat Weight Disord [Internet]. 2016;21(2):229–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lyons SK, Helgeson VS, Witchel SF, Becker DJ, Korytkowski MT. Physicians’ self-perceptions of care for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Endocr Pract. 2014;21(8):903–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. MacDonald J, Sohn S, Ellis P. Privacy, professionalism and Facebook: a dilemma for young doctors. Med Educ [Internet]. 2010;44(8):805–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Macleod J, Oakes R, Copello A, Crome I, Egger M, Hickman M, et al. Psychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: a systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies. Lancet (London, England) [Internet]. 2004;363(9421):1579–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Manchikanti Gomez A, Grimes DA, Lopez LM, Schulz KF. Steroid hormones for contraception in women with sickle cell disease. In: Manchikanti Gomez A, editor. Cochrane database of systematic reviews [Internet]. Chichester: Wiley; 2007. Scholar
  80. Matteson K, Rahn D, Wheeler T, Casiano E, Siddiqui NY, Harvey HS, et al. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(3):632–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McCann-Crosby B, Sutton VR. Disorders of sexual development. Clin Perinatol. 2015;42(2):395–412, ix–x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McNicholas C, Zhao Q, Secura G, Allsworth JE, Madden T, Peipert JF. Contraceptive failures in overweight and obese combined hormonal contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol [Internet]. 2013;121(3):585–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mehmedic Z, Chandra S, Slade D, Denham H, Foster S, Patel AS, et al. Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci [Internet]. 2010;55(5):1209–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mei S, Yau YHC, Chai J, Guo J, Potenza MN. Problematic Internet use, well-being, self-esteem and self-control: data from a high-school survey in China. Addict Behav [Internet]. 2016;61:74–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RSE, et al. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A [Internet]. 2012;109(40):E2657–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Miech RA, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2015. Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research; 2016.Google Scholar
  87. Moreno MA, Kolb J. Social networking sites and adolescent health. Pediatr Clin North Am [Internet]. 2012;59(3):601–12, vii. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moynihan M, Saewyc E, Whitehouse S, Paone M, McPherson G. Assessing readiness for transition from paediatric to adult health care: revision and psychometric evaluation of the Am I ON TRAC for Adult Care questionnaire. J Adv Nurs. 2015;71(6):1324–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana. n.d.-aGoogle Scholar
  90. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Principles of adolescent substance use disorder treatment: a research-based guide. n.d.-bGoogle Scholar
  91. Office of Adolescent Health. Trends in teen childbearing and pregnancy. 2016.Google Scholar
  92. Office of National Drug Control Policy. Marijuana Resource Center: state laws related to marijuana.
  93. Osman A, Wardle A, Caesar R. Online professionalism and Facebook—falling through the generation gap. Med Teach [Internet]. 2012;34(8):e549–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Papadimitriou A. The evolution of the age at Menarche from prehistorical to modern times. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol [Internet]. 2016;11–4. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2015.12.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Patton GC, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Degenhardt L, Lynskey M, Hall W. Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study. BMJ. 2002;325(7374):1195–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Perkonigg A, Goodwin RD, Fiedler A, Behrendt S, Beesdo K, Lieb R, et al. The natural course of cannabis use, abuse and dependence during the first decades of life. Addiction [Internet]. 2008;103(3):439–49; discussion 450–1. [Cited 15 Dec 2015]. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Plener P, Molz E, Berger G, Schober E, Oller O, Denzer K, et al. Depression, metabolic control, and antidepressant medication in young patients with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2015;16:58–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Polen MR, Sidney S, Tekawa IS, Sadler M, Friedman GD. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. West J Med [Internet]. 1993;158(6):596–601. Google Scholar
  99. Puckett JA, Horne SG, Surace F, Carter A, Noffsinger-Frazier N, Shulman J, et al. Predictors of sexual minority youth’s reported suicide attempts and mental health. J Homosex. 2016;64:697–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ramaekers JG, Berghaus G, Van Laar M, Drummer OH. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;73:109–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reifsnider E, Mendias N, Davila Y, Bever Babendure J. Contraception and the obese woman. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract [Internet]. 2013;25(5):223–33. Google Scholar
  102. Resnick HS, Walsh K, McCauley JL, Schumacher JA, Kilpatrick DG, Acierno RE. Assault related substance use as a predictor of substance use over time within a sample of recent victims of sexual assault. Addict Behav [Internet]. 2012;37(8):914–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Resnick HS, Walsh K, Schumacher JA, Kilpatrick DG, Acierno R. Prior substance abuse and related treatment history reported by recent victims of sexual assault. Addict Behav [Internet]. 2013;38(4):2074–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rice E, Barman-Adhikari A, Rhoades H, Winetrobe H, Fulginiti A, Astor R, et al. Homelessness experiences, sexual orientation, and sexual risk taking among high school students in Los Angeles. J Adolesc Health. 2013;52(6):773–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Robinson JA, Burke AE. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Womens Health (Lond Engl) [Internet]. 2013;9(5):453–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rosen DS. Physiologic growth and development during adolescence. Pediatr Rev [Internet]. 2004;25(6):194–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Salmela-Aro K, Upadyaya K, Hakkarainen K, Lonka K, Alho K. The dark side of internet use: two longitudinal studies of excessive internet use, depressive symptoms, school burnout and engagement among finnish early and late adolescents. J Youth Adolesc [Internet]. 2017;46(2):343–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanders RA. Adolescent psychosocial, social, and cognitive development. Pediatr Rev [Internet]. 2013;34(8):354–8; quiz 358–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sayin FK, Buyukinan M. Sleep duration and media time have a major impact on insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. Child Obes [Internet]. 2016;12(4):272–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schepis TS, Adinoff B, Rao U. Neurobiological processes in adolescent addictive disorders. Am J Addict. 2008;17(1):6–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schwartz LA, Daniel LC, Brumley LD, Barakat LP, Wesley KM, Tuchman LK. Measures of readiness to transition to adult health care for youth with chronic physical health conditions: a systematic review and recommendations for measurement testing and development. J Pediatr Psychol. 2014;39(6):588–601.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schweinsburg AD, Brown SA, Tapert SF. The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Curr Drug Abuse Rev [Internet]. 2008;1(1):99–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sidani JE, Shensa A, Hoffman B, Hanmer J, Primack BA. The association between social media use and eating concerns among US young adults. J Acad Nutr Diet [Internet]. 2016;116(9):1465–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Simpson CC, Mazzeo SE. Skinny is not enough: a content analysis of fitspiration on pinterest. Health Commun [Internet]. 2016;1–8.
  115. Squeglia LM, Tapert SF, Sullivan EV, Jacobus J, Meloy MJ, Rohlfing T, et al. Brain development in heavy-drinking adolescents. Am J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2015;172(6):531–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Steensma TD, McGuire JK, Kreukels BPC, Beekman AJ, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2013;52(6):582–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Steinberg L. The case for delayed adulthood. The New York Times. New York; 21 Sept 2014;SR12.Google Scholar
  118. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Behavioral health treatment services locator. n.d.Google Scholar
  119. Surís JC. Chronically ill but still adolescent. Minerva Pediatr. 2002;54(6):507–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Suris J-C, Parera N. Sex, drugs and chronic illness: health behaviours among chronically ill youth. Eur J Pub Health. 2005;15(5):484–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. TeensHealth. Drugs and alcohol. n.d.Google Scholar
  122. The Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse Research. The CRAFFT screening tool. n.d.
  123. The National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health. GotTransition. n.d. www.gottransition.orgGoogle Scholar
  124. Trans Student Educational Resources. The gender unicorn. n.d.Google Scholar
  125. Vaala SE, Hood KK, Laffel L, Kumah-Crystal YA, Lybarger CK, Mulvaney SA. Use of commonly available technologies for diabetes information and self-management among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents: a web-based survey study. Interact J Med Res [Internet]. 2015;4(4):e24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Valencia LS, Cromer BA. Sexual activity and other high-risk behaviors in adolescents with chronic illness: a review. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2000;13(2):53–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. van Ekris E, Altenburg TM, Singh A, Proper K, Heymans MW, Chinapaw M. An evidence-update on the prospective relationship between childhood sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev [Internet]. 2016;17(9):833–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Walvoord EC. The timing of puberty: is it changing? Does it matter? J Adolesc Health [Internet]. 2010;47(5):433–9. [Cited 12 Mar 2013]. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Warner PE, Critchley HOD, Lumsden MA, Campbell-Brown M, Douglas A, Murray GD, Menorrhagia II. Is the 80-mL blood loss criterion useful in management of complaint of menorrhagia? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004a;190(5):1224–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Warner PE, Critchley HOD, Lumsden MA, Campbell-Brown M, Douglas A, Murray GD, Menorrhagia I. Measured blood loss, clinical features, and outcome in women with heavy periods—a survey with follow-up data. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004b;190(5):1216–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weinraub M, Clemens LP, Sockloff A, Ethridge T, Gracely E, Myers B. The development of sex role stereotypes in the third year: relationships to gender labeling, gender identity, sex-typed toy preference, and family characteristics. Child Dev. 1984;55(4):1493–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wilkie G, Sakr B, Rizack T. Medical Marijuana use in oncology: a review. JAMA Oncol [Internet]. 17 Mar 2016.
  133. Winters KC, Lee C-YS. Likelihood of developing an alcohol and cannabis use disorder during youth: association with recent use and age. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2008;92:239–47. www.sciencedirect.comCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. World Professional Organization for Transgender Health. Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, version 7. 2012.Google Scholar
  135. Xu H, Wade JA, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Madden T, Secura GM. Contraceptive failure rates of etonogestrel subdermal implants in overweight and obese women. Obstet Gynecol [Internet]. 2012;120(1):21–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Yuan M, Cross SJ, Loughlin SE, Leslie FM. Nicotine and the adolescent brain. J Physiol [Internet]. 2015;593(16):3397–412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of PediatricsSeattle Children’s Hospital and University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations