TXT-tool 4.066-1.1: Community-Based Landslide Risk Management Approaches
In recent times landslides and mass movements have become widespread events, posing great problems and serious challenges to development, especially in mountainous areas of developing nations in Asia. Landslides have increased both in frequency and intensity and have assumed catastrophic and disastrous proportions in a number of countries, causing extensive damage to life and property. Mass movements occur as a result of heavy precipitation or as a secondary hazard triggered by geological events such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. In addition to those triggering factors, increases in landslide occurrence have been associated with a combination of factors, including geology, topography, morphometry, climate, and human activities that directly or indirectly contribute to the phenomena of slope instability. Landslides are often triggered in areas with a past history of landslides and reducing the risk due to landslides using community-based approaches is considered as an effective measure for reducing the damage from landslides. In most areas, development activities seem to be responsible for new landslides, as well as reactivation of dormant landslides. The community members are the first responders to any disaster event at local level. Therefore they should understand the signs of impending landslides or slope destabilization, and have knowledge of potential high hazard areas, and ways of avoiding exposure. It is also appropriate to develop hazard maps for landslide-prone areas using community-based risk assessment tools and undertake preparedness planning with affected communities. They also should be warned in time through constant monitoring, and early warning of potential reactivation. In addition, slow-moving slides on hill slopes need constant monitoring, as many developing countries in Asia cannot afford to undertake mitigation measures or to resettle people to safer areas after identification of the potential threat. Hence the purpose of this training session is to create awareness of possible community-based interventions so that local government level officials will be able to build the capacity of the local or community-level stakeholders on landslide-related issues and involve them actively in landslide risk management activities. In the same way, many landslides are triggered by inappropriate practices in construction on hill slopes, land uses such as agriculture, excavations, and mining practices. Communities living in areas with a history of landslides should understand the factors causing the landslides and mitigation measures that can be undertaken to minimize losses. This session deals with community-based interventions such as hazard, vulnerability and risk mapping, preparedness planning, mitigation interventions and community-level training to improve first responder capacity for early warning evacuation and undertaking preparedness measures at a community level.
KeywordsParticipatory risk assessment Community level early warning Community first responders Risk-resource-evacuation mapping
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