Advertisement

Pediatric Neurovascular Disease

  • Brian P. Curry
  • Daniel S. Ikeda
  • Randy S. Bell
  • Shahid M. Nimjee
  • Ciarán J. Powers
Chapter

Abstract

Pediatric cerebrovascular disease comprises a diverse set of rare but nevertheless impactful vascular abnormalities that, while similar in some respects to those conditions found in adults, often represent distinct entities with pathophysiology, associated risk factors, and prevention and treatment considerations unique to this patient population. In addition, despite their relative rarity, the clinical consequences in younger patients may be profound and long lasting, and the associated costs may be enormous. As such, an awareness of these lesions and their current treatments is of paramount importance. Advancements in microsurgical and endovascular approaches to pediatric cerebrovascular disease have significantly evolved. The rarity of these lesions and the difficulty in enrolling pediatric patients in controlled trials has made large-scale clinical trials difficult to accomplish, necessitating that the practitioner be adequately versed in the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions when caring for these patients. While this chapter endeavors to present a selection of important pediatric cerebrovascular lesions and disease processes, it cannot possibly describe the full breadth of cerebrovascular disease in such a small space, nor can it hope to present those entities it does discuss exhaustively.

Keywords

Arteriovenous malformation Endovascular intervention Hemorrhagic stroke Ischemic stroke Pediatric intracranial aneurysm Pediatric vascular malformations Subarachnoid hemorrhage Vein of Galen malformation 

References

  1. 1.
    Allison JW, Davis PC, Sato Y, James CA, Haque SS, Angtuaco EJC, Glasier CM. Intracranial aneurysms in infants and children. Pediatr Radiol. 1998;28:223–9. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heiskanen O, Vilkki J. Intracranial arterial aneurysms in children and adolescents. Acta Neurochir. 1981;59:55–63. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Proust F, Toussaint P, Garniéri J, Hannequin D, Legars D, Houtteville J-P, Fréger P. Pediatric cerebral aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 2009;94:733–9.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns20019450733, Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hetts SW, Narvid J, Sanai N, Lawton MT, Gupta N, Fullerton HJ, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Intracranial aneurysms in childhood: 27-year single-institution experience. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:1315–24. American Society of Neuroradiology.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Østergaard JR, Voldby B. Intracranial arterial aneurysms in children and adolescents. J Neurosurg. 2009;58:832–7.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19835860832, Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yashar M, Kalani S, Elhadi AM, Ramey W, Nakaji P, Albuquerque FC, McDougall CG, Zabramski JM, Spetzler RF. Revascularization and pediatric aneurysm surgery. Am Assoc Neurological Surg. 2014;13:641–6.  https://doi.org/10.3171/20143PEDS13444.
  7. 7.
    Meyer FB, Sundt TM, Fode NC, Morgan MK, Forbes GS, Mellinger JF. Cerebral aneurysms in childhood and adolescence. J Neurosurg. 1989;70:420–5. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Norris JS, Wallace MC. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1998;9:557–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Locksley HB, Sahs AL, Knowler L. Report on the cooperative study of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Section II. General survey of cases in the central registry and characteristics of the sample population. J Neurosurg. 1966;24:922–32. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sorteberg A, Dahlberg D. Intracranial non-traumatic aneurysms in children and adolescents. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2013;9:343–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ayala C, Croft JB, Greenlund KJ, Keenan NL, Donehoo RS, Malarcher AM, Mensah GA. Sex differences in US mortality rates for stroke and stroke subtypes by race/ethnicity and age, 1995–1998. Stroke. 2002;33:1197–201. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chalouhi N, Hoh BL, Hasan D. Review of cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Stroke. 2013;44:3613–22. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lv X, Jiang C, Li Y, Yang X, Wu Z. Endovascular treatment for pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Neuroradiology. 2009;51:749–54. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lasjaunias P, Wuppalapati S, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Ozanne A. Intracranial aneurysms in children aged under 15 years: review of 59 consecutive children with 75 aneurysms. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2005;21:437–50. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elgamal EA. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the first year of life. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2005;21:349. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stehbens WE. Intracranial berry aneurysms in infancy. Surg Neurol. 1982;18:58–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liang J, Bao Y, Zhang H, Wrede KH, Zhi X, Li M, Ling F. The clinical features and treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysm. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2009;25:317–24. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sanai N, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Gupta NM, Perry V, Sun PP, Wilson CB, Lawton MT. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: durability of treatment following microsurgical and endovascular management. J Neurosurg Pediatrics. 2008;104:82–9. American Association of Neurological Surgeons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Agrawal N, Johnston SC, Wu YW, Sidney S, Fullerton HJ. Imaging data reveal a higher pediatric stroke incidence than prior US estimates. Stroke. 2009;40:3415–21. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Agid R, Souza MPS, Reintamm G, Armstrong D, Dirks P, TerBrugge KG. The role of endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2005;21:1030–6. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Storrs BB, Humphreys RP, Hendrick EB, Hoffman HJ. Intracranial aneurysms in the Pediatric age group. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2004;9:358–61. Karger Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krishna H, Wani AA, Behari S, Banerji D, Chhabra DK, Jain VK. Intracranial aneurysms in patients 18 years of age or under, are they different from aneurysms in adult population? Acta neurochir. 2005;147:469–76. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kassell NF, Torner JC, Jane JA, Clarke Haley E Jr, Adams HP, et al. The international cooperative study on the timing of aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg. 2009;73:37–47.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19907310037. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krings T, Geibprasert S, TerBrugge KG. Pathomechanisms and treatment of pediatric aneurysms. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2010;26:1309–18. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharma BS, Sinha S, Mehta VS, Suri A, Gupta A, Mahapatra AK. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms—clinical characteristics and outcome of surgical treatment. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2007;23:327–33. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kakarla UK, Beres EJ, Ponce FA, Chang SW, Deshmukh VR, Bambakidis NC, Zabramski JM, Spetzler RF. Microsurgical treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysms: long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:237–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shucart WA, Wolpert SM. Intracranial arterial aneurysms in childhood. Am J Dis Child. 1974;127:288–93. American Medical Association.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Molyneux AJ, Kerr RS, Yu L-M, Clarke M, Sneade M, Yarnold JA, Sandercock P. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion. Lancet. 2005;366:809–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patel AN, Richardson AE. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the first two decades of life. J Neurosurg. 2009;35:571–6.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19713550571. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huang J, McGirt MJ, Gailloud P, Tamargo RJ. Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population: case series and literature review. Surg Neurol. 2005;63:424–32. Elsevier.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stiefel MF, Heuer GG, Basil AK, Weigele JB, Sutton LN, Hurst RW, Storm PB. Endovascular and surgical treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:859–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fulkerson DH, Voorhies JM, Payner TD, Leipzig TJ, Horner TG, Redelman K, Cohen-Gadol AA. Middle cerebral artery aneurysms in children: case series and review. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2011;8:79–89.  https://doi.org/10.3171/20114PEDS10583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vermeulen M, Van Gijn J. The diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurol. 1990;53:365–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Karttunen AI, Jartti PH, Ukkola VA, Sajanti J, Haapea M. Value of the quantity and distribution of subarachnoid haemorrhage on CT in the localization of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Acta Neurochir. 2003;145:655–61. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    van Gijn J, Kerr RS, Rinkel GJ. Subarachnoid haemorrhage. Lancet. 2007;369:306–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Okahara M, Kiyosue H, Yamashita M, Nagatomi H, Hata H, Saginoya T, Sagara Y, Mori H. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography for cerebral aneurysms in correlation with 3D–digital subtraction angiographic images. Stroke. 2002;33:1803–8. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dawkins AA, Evans AL, Wattam J, Romanowski CAJ, Connolly DJA, Hodgson TJ, Coley SC. Complications of cerebral angiography: a prospective analysis of 2,924 consecutive procedures. Neuroradiology. 2007;49:753–9. Springer.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Willinsky RA, Taylor SM, terBrugge K, Farb RI, Tomlinson G, Montanera W. Neurologic complications of cerebral angiography: prospective analysis of 2,899 procedures and review of the literature. Radiology. 2003;227:522–8. Radiological Society of North America.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hamada J-I, Kai Y, Morioka M, Yano S, Todaka T, Ushio Y. Multimodal treatment of ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery during the acute stage. J Neurosurg. 2009;99:960–6.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns20039960960. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saraf R, Shrivastava M, Siddhartha W, Limaye U. Intracranial pediatric aneurysms: endovascular treatment and its outcome. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2012;10:230–40.  https://doi.org/10.3171/20125PEDS1210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vargas SA, Diaz C, Herrera DA, Dublin AB. Intracranial aneurysms in children: the role of stenting and flow-diversion. J Neuroimaging. 2016;26:41–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Navarro R, Brown BL, Beier A, Ranalli N, Aldana P, Hanel RA. Flow diversion for complex intracranial aneurysms in young children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015;15:276–81. American Association of Neurological SurgeonsPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barburoglu M, Arat A. Flow diverters in the treatment of pediatric cerebrovascular diseases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016. American Society of Neuroradiology.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Karhunen PJ, Penttilä A, Erkinjuntti T. Arteriovenous malformation of the brain: imaging by postmortem angiography. Forensic Sci Int. 1990;48:9–19. Elsevier.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohr JP, Kejda-Scharler J, Pile-Spellman J. Diagnosis and treatment of arteriovenous malformations. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013;13:324. Current Science Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ondra SL, Troupp H, George ED, Schwab K. The natural history of symptomatic arteriovenous malformations of the brain: a 24-year follow-up assessment. J Neurosurg. 2009;73:387–91.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19907330387. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fong D, Chan ST. Arteriovenous malformation in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 1988;4:199–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garza-Mercado R, Cavazos E, Tamez-Montes D. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children and adolescents. Surg Neurol. 1987;27:131–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Celli P, Ferrante L, Palma L, Cavedon G. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children. Clinical features and outcome of treatment in children and in adults. Surg Neurol. 1984;22:43–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Darsaut TE, Guzman R, Marcellus ML, Edwards MS, Tian L, Do HM, Chang SD, Levy RP, Adler JR, Marks MP, Steinberg GK. Management of pediatric intracranial arteriovenous malformations: experience with multimodality therapy. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:540–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hernesniemi JA, Dashti R, Juvela S, Väärt K, Niemelä M, Laakso A. Natural history of brain arteriovenous malformations: a long-term follow-up study of risk of hemorrhage in 238 patients. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:823–9; discussion 829–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Itoyama Y, Uemura S, Ushio Y, Kuratsu J, Nonaka N, Wada H, Sano Y, Fukumura A, Yoshida K, Yano T. Natural course of unoperated intracranial arteriovenous malformations: study of 50 cases. J Neurosurg. 1989;71:805–9. Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Humphreys RP, Hoffman HJ, Drake JM, Rutka JT. Choices in the 1990s for the management of pediatric cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1996;25:277–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fullerton HJ, Achrol AS, Johnston SC, McCulloch CE, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Sidney S, Young WL, Project FTUBS. Long-term Hemorrhage risk in children versus adults with brain Arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2005;36:2099–104. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kelly JJ, Mellinger JF, Sundt TM. Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in childhood. Ann Neurol. 1978;3:338–43. Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stapf C, Mast H, Sciacca RR, Choi JH, Khaw AV, Connolly ES, Pile-Spellman J, Mohr JP. Predictors of hemorrhage in patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformation. Neurology. 2006;66:1350–5. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cho SS. Cerebral Arteriovenous malformations in children. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1978;4:242–50. Karger Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Crawford PM, West CR, Chadwick DW, Shaw MD. Arteriovenous malformations of the brain: natural history in unoperated patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 1986;49:1–10. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Takashima S, Becker LE. Neuropathology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 1980;43:380–5. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Niazi TN, Klimo P, Anderson RCE, Raffel C. Diagnosis and management of arteriovenous malformations in children. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010;21:443–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Griffiths PD, Beveridge CJ, Gholkar A. Angiography in non-traumatic brain haematoma. An analysis of 100 cases. Acta Radiol. 1997;38:797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Willinsky RA, Fitzgerald M, terBrugge K, Montanera W, Wallace M. Delayed angiography in the investigation of intracerebral hematomas caused by small arteriovenous malformations. Neuroradiology. 1993;35:307–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hoh BL, Ogilvy CS, Butler WE, Loeffler JS, Putman CM, Chapman PH. Multimodality treatment of nongalenic arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery. 2000;47:346–57; discussion 357–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Blount JP, Shane Tubbs R, Jerry Oakes W, Humphreys RP. History of surgery for cerebrovascular disease in children. Part III. Arteriovenous malformations. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2007;20:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.3171/foc200620611.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kiriş T, Sencer A, Sahinbaş M, Sencer S, Imer M, Izgi N. Surgical results in pediatric Spetzler-Martin grades I-III intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2005;21:69–74; discussion75–6. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bristol RE, Albuquerque FC, Spetzler RF, Rekate HL, McDougall CG, Zabramski JM. Surgical management of arteriovenous malformations in children. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2007;105:88–93.  https://doi.org/10.3171/ped2006105288.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schaller C, Schramm J. Microsurgical results for small arteriovenous malformations accessible for radiosurgical or embolization treatment. Neurosurgery. 1997;40:664–72; discussion 672–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kahl W, Kessel G, Schwarz M, Voth D. Arterio-venous malformations in childhood: clinical presentation, results after operative treatment and long-term follow-up. Neurosurg Rev. 1989;12:165–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ventureyra EC, Herder S. Arteriovenous malformations of the brain in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 1987;3:12–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frizzel RT, Fisher WSI. Cure, morbidity, and mortality associated with embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: a review of 1246 patients in 32 series over a 35-year period. Neurosurgery. 1995;37:1031.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zheng T, Wang Q-J, Liu Y-Q, Cui X-B, Gao Y-Y, Lai L-F, Su S-X, Zhang X, Li X-F, He X-Y, Duan C-Z. Clinical features and endovascular treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 2014;30:647–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Berenstein A, Ortiz R, Niimi Y, Elijovich L, Fifi J, Madrid M, Ghatan S, Molofsky W. Endovascular management of arteriovenous malformations and other intracranial arteriovenous shunts in neonates, infants, and children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:1345–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Soltanolkotabi M, Schoeneman SE, Alden TD, Hurley MC, Ansari SA, DiPatri AJ, Tomita T, Shaibani A. Onyx embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013;11:431–7. American Association of Neurological Surgeons.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kim LJ, Albuquerque FC, Spetzler RF, McDougall CG. Postembolization neurological deficits in cerebral arteriovenous malformations: stratification by arteriovenous malformation grade. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:53–9; discussion 53–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Altschuler EM, Lunsford LD, Coffey RJ, Bissonette DJ, Flickinger JC. Gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1989;15:53–61. Karger Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kondziolka D, Humphreys RP, Hoffman HJ, Hendrick EB, Drake JM. Arteriovenous malformations of the brain in children: a forty year experience. Can J Neurol Sci. 1992;19:40–5. Cambridge University Press.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yen CP, Monteith SJ, Nguyen JH, Rainey J, Schlesinger DJ, Sheehan JP. Gamma Knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:426–34. American Association of Neurological Surgeons.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yamamoto M, Akabane A, Matsumaru Y, Higuchi Y, Kasuya H, Urakawa Y. Long-term follow-up results of intentional 2-stage gamma knife surgery with an interval of at least 3 years for arteriovenous malformations larger than 10 cm3. J Neurosurg. 2012;117(Suppl):126–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kano H, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Yang H-c, Flannery TJ, Awan NR, Niranjan A, Novotny J Jr, Dade Lunsford L. Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations, Part 2: management of pediatric patients. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2011;9:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.3171/20119PEDS10458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hoang S, Choudhri O, Edwards M, Guzman R. Vein of Galen malformation. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2009;27:E8.  https://doi.org/10.3171/20098FOCUS09168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Long DM, Seljeskog EL, Chou SN, French LA. Giant arteriovenous malformations of infancy and childhood. J Neurosurg. 1974;40:304–12. Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lylyk P, Viñuela F, Dion JE, Duckwiler G, Guglielmi G, Peacock W, Martin N. Therapeutic alternatives for vein of Galen vascular malformations. J Neurosurg. 2009;78:438–45.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19937830438. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vanaman MJ, Hervey-Jumper SL, Maher CO. Pediatric and inherited neurovascular diseases. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010;21:427–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gailloud P, O'Riordan DP, Burger I, Levrier O, Jallo G, Tamargo RJ, Murphy KJ, Lehmann CU. Diagnosis and management of vein of galen aneurysmal malformations. J Perinatol. 2005;25:542–51. Nature Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nangiana JS, Lim M, Silva RA, Guzman R, Chang SD. Vein of Galen malformations: part I: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and radiologic evaluation. Contemporary Neurosurg. 2008;30:1–7.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lasjaunias PL, Chng SM, Sachet M, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Garcia-Monaco R. The management of vein of galen aneurysmal malformations. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:S3–184–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Balousek PA, Ciricillo SF, Edwards MSB. Endovascular treatment of mural-type vein of Galen malformations. J Neurosurg. 2009;89:74–80.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19988910074. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Geibprasert S, Krings T, Armstrong D, TerBrugge KG, Raybaud CA. Predicting factors for the follow-up outcome and management decisions in vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2010;26:35–46. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Loren Amacher A, John Shillito J. The syndromes and surgical treatment of aneurysms of the great vein of Galen. J Neurosurg. 2009;39:89–98.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns19733910089. Publishing Group.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Heuer GG, Gabel B, Beslow LA, Stiefel MF, Schwartz ES, Storm PB, Ichord RN, Hurst RW. Diagnosis and treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2010;26:879–87. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zerah M, Garcia-Monaco R, Rodesch G, terBrugge K, Tardieu M, de Victor D, Lasjaunias P. Hydrodynamics in vein of Galen malformations. Child’s Nerv Syst. 1992;8:111–117. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yan J, Wen J, Gopaul R, Zhang C-Y, Xiao S-W. Outcome and complications of endovascular embolization for vein of Galen malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2015;123:872–90.  https://doi.org/10.3171/201412JNS141249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Messori A, Polonara G, Salvolini U, Jones BV. Prenatal diagnosis of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation with fetal MR imaging study. Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1923–5. American Society of Neuroradiology.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Brunelle F. Brain vascular malformations in the fetus: diagnosis and prognosis. Childs Nerv Syst. 2003.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kurihara N, Tokieda K, Ikeda K, Mori K, Hokuto I, Nishimura O, Ishimoto H, Yuasa Y. Prenatal MR findings in a case of aneurysm of the vein of Galen. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31:160–2. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Campi A, Rodesch G, Scotti G, Lasjaunias P. Aneurysmal malformation of the vein of Galen in three patients: clinical and radiological follow-up. Neuroradiology. 1998;40:816–21. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Langer DJ, Song JK, Niimi Y, Chwajol M, Lefton DR, Brisman JL, Molofsky W, Kupersmith MJ, Berenstein A. Transarterial embolization of vein of Galen malformations: the use of magnetic resonance imaging noninvasive optimal vessel analysis to quantify shunt reduction. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 1998;104:41–5.  https://doi.org/10.3171/ped2006104141.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lasjaunias P, Hui F, Zerah M, Garcia-Monaco R, Malherbe V, Rodesch G, Tanaka A, Alvarez H. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children. Child’s Nerv Syst. 1995;11:66–79. Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lasjaunias PL, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Garcia-Monaco R, Brugge Ter K, Burrows P, Taylor W. Aneurysmal malformations of the vein of galen. Follow-up of 120 children treated between 1984 and 1994. Interv Neuroradiol. 1996;2:15–26. SAGE Publications.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jones BV, Ball WS, Tomsick TA, Millard J, Crone KR. Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: diagnosis and treatment of 13 children with extended clinical follow-up. Am J Neuroradiol. 2002;23:1717–24. American Society of Neuroradiology.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Fullerton HJ, Aminoff AR, Ferriero DM, Gupta N, Dowd CF. Neurodevelopmental outcome after endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations. Neurology. 2003;61:1386–90. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mitchell PJ, Rosenfeld JV, Dargaville P, Loughnan P, Ditchfield MR, Frawley G, Tress BM. Endovascular management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations presenting in the neonatal period. Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:1403–9. American Society of Neuroradiology.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ellis JA, Orr L, Ii PCM, Anderson RC, Feldstein NA, Meyers PM. Cognitive and functional status after vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation endovascular occlusion. World J Radiol. 2012;4:83–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Berenstein A, Fifi JT, Niimi Y, Presti S, Ortiz R, Ghatan S, Rosenn B, Sorscher M, Molofsky W. Vein of Galen malformations in neonates: new management paradigms for improving outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2012;70:1207–13; discussion 1213–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gupta AK, Rao VRK, Varma DR, Kapilamoorthy TR, Kesavadas C, Krishnamoorthy T, Thomas B, Bodhey NK, Purkayastha S. Evaluation, management, and long-term follow up of vein of Galen malformations. Am Assoc Neurol Surg. 2007;105:26–33.  https://doi.org/10.3171/jns2006105126.
  106. 106.
    Chung B, Wong V. Pediatric stroke among Hong Kong Chinese subjects. Pediatrics. 2004;114:e206–12. American Academy of Pediatrics.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schoenberg BS, Mellinger JF, Schoenberg DG. Cerebrovascular disease in infants and children a study of incidence, clinical features, and survival. Neurology. 1978;28:763–8. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Broderick J, Talbot GT, Prenger E, Leach A, Brott T. Stroke in children within a major metropolitan area: the surprising importance of Intracerebral Hemorrhage. J Child Neurol. 1993;8:250–5. SAGE Publications.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lynch JK, Hirtz DG, DeVeber G, Nelson KB. Report of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and stroke workshop on perinatal and childhood stroke. Pediatrics. 2002;109:116–23. American Academy of Pediatrics.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mozaffarian D, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133:e38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    deVeber GA, MacGregor D, Curtis R, Mayank S. Neurologic Outcome in Survivors of Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Sinovenous Thrombosis. J Child Neurol. 2000;15:316–24. SAGE Publications.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fullerton HJ, Chetkovich DM, Wu YW, Smith WS, Johnston SC. Deaths from stroke in US children, 1979 to 1998. Neurology. 2002;59:34–9. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    DeVeber G. In pursuit of evidence-based treatments for paediatric stroke: the UK and chest guidelines. Lancet Neurol. 2005;4:432–6. Elsevier.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Perkins E, Stephens J, Xiang H, Lo W. The cost of pediatric stroke acute care in the United States. Stroke. 2009;40:2820–7. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mackay MT, Wiznitzer M, Benedict SL, Lee KJ, deVeber GA, Ganesan V Arterial ischemic stroke risk factors: the international pediatric stroke study, Ann Neurol; 2011;69:130–140. A Wiley Company, Wiley Subscription Services, Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lee J, Croen LA, Backstrand KH, Yoshida CK, Henning LH, Lindan C, Ferriero DM, Fullerton HJ, Barkovich AJ, Wu YW. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with perinatal arterial stroke in the infant. JAMA. 2005;293:723–9. American Medical Association.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kirton A, Armstrong-Wells J, Chang T, DeVeber G, Rivkin MJ, Hernandez M, Carpenter J, Yager JY, Lynch JK, Ferriero DM, Investigators FTIPSS. Symptomatic neonatal arterial ischemic stroke: the international pediatric stroke study. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e1402–10. American Academy of Pediatrics.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Fullerton HJ, Wu YW, Sidney S, Johnston SC. Risk of recurrent childhood arterial ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort: the importance of cerebrovascular imaging. Pediatrics. 2007;119:495–501. American Academy of Pediatrics.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sträter R, Vielhaber H, Kassenböhmer R, Kries von R, Göbel U, Nowak-Göttl U. Genetic risk factors of thrombophilia in ischaemic childhood stroke of cardiac origin. A prospective ESPED survey. Eur J Pediatr. 1999;158:S122–5. Springer.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hills NK, Johnston SC, Sidney S, Zielinski BA, Fullerton HJ. Recent trauma and acute infection as risk factors for childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Annals of Neurology. 2012;72:850–8. Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ohene-Frempong K, Weiner SJ, Sleeper LA, Miller ST, Embury S, Moohr JW, Wethers DL, Pegelow CH, Gill FM, Disease TCSOSC. Cerebrovascular accidents in sickle cell disease: rates and risk Factors. Blood. 1998;91:288–294. American Society of Hematology.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Miller ST, Macklin EA, Pegelow CH, Kinney TR, Sleeper LA, Bello JA, DeWitt LD, Gallagher DM, Guarini L, Moser FG, Ohene-Frempong K, Sanchez N, Vichinsky EP, Wang WC, Wethers DL, Younkin DP, Zimmerman RA, DeBaun MR. Silent infarction as a risk factor for overt stroke in children with sickle cell anemia: a report from the cooperative study of sickle cell disease. J Pediatr. 2001;139:385–90. Elsevier.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Younkin DP. Diagnosis and treatment of ischemic pediatric stroke. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2002;2:18–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tsze DS, Valente JH. Pediatric stroke: a review. Emerg Med Int. 2011;2011:1–10. Hindawi Publishing Corporation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Roach ES, Golomb MR, Adams R, Biller J, Daniels S, DeVeber G, Ferriero D, Jones BV, Kirkham FJ, Scott RM, Smith ER, American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Management of stroke in infants and children: a scientific statement from a Special Writing Group of the American Heart Association Stroke Council and the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Stroke. 2008. 2644–91. American Heart Association, Inc.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schechter T, Kirton A, Laughlin S, Pontigon A-M, Finkelstein Y, MacGregor D, Chan A, DeVeber G, Brandão LR. Safety of anticoagulants in children with arterial ischemic stroke. Blood. 2012;119:949–56. American Society of Hematology.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bernard TJ, Goldenberg NA, Tripputi M, Manco-Johnson MJ, Niederstadt T, Nowak-Göttl U. Anticoagulation in childhood-onset arterial ischemic stroke with non-moyamoya arteriopathy: findings from the Colorado and German (COAG) collaboration, Stroke. 2009;40:2869–2871 American Heart Association Inc.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Manco-Johnson MJ, Grabowski EF, Hellgreen M, Kemahli AS, Massicotte MP, Muntean W, Peters M, Schlegel N, Wang M, Nowak-Göttl U. Recommendations for tPA thrombolysis in children. On behalf of the scientific subcommittee on perinatal and Pediatric thrombosis of the scientific and standardization Committee of the International Society of thrombosis and haemostasis. Thromb Haemost. 2002;88:157–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Janjua N, Nasar A, Lynch JK, Qureshi AI. Thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in children: data from the nationwide inpatient sample. Stroke. 2007;38:1850–4. American Heart Association, Inc.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jain SV, Morton LD. Ischemic stroke and excellent recovery after Administration of Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;38:126–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Monagle P, Chalmers E, Chan A, DeVeber G, Kirkham F, Massicotte P, Michelson AD. Antithrombotic therapy in neonates and children: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133:887S–968S. American College of Chest Physicians.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Rivkin MJ, DeVeber G, Ichord RN, Kirton A, Chan AK, Hovinga CA, Gill JC, Szabo A, Hill MD, Scholz K, Amlie-Lefond C. Thrombolysis in pediatric stroke study. Stroke. 2015;46:880–5. American Heart Association Inc.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ellis MJ, Amlie-Lefond C, Orbach DB. Endovascular therapy in children with acute ischemic stroke: review and recommendations. Neurology. 2012;79:S158–64. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Satti S, Chen J, Sivapatham T, Jayaraman M, Orbach D. Mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric acute ischemic stroke: review of the literature. J NeuroIntervent Surg. 2016. neurintsurg-2016-012320.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian P. Curry
    • 1
  • Daniel S. Ikeda
    • 2
  • Randy S. Bell
    • 2
  • Shahid M. Nimjee
    • 3
  • Ciarán J. Powers
    • 3
  1. 1.Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Service of NeurosurgeryBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Service of NeurosurgeryBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurological SurgeryThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical CenterColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations