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Characteristics of Arid and Desert Ecosystems

  • Mohammad Jafari
  • Ali Tavili
  • Fatemeh Panahi
  • Ehsan Zandi Esfahan
  • Majid Ghorbani
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

An ecosystem is simply defined as organisms and their environment. The term “ecosystem” implies an integral link between organisms and their non-living environment with interactions that mean they cannot live outside the specific environment.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Jafari
    • 1
  • Ali Tavili
    • 1
  • Fatemeh Panahi
    • 2
  • Ehsan Zandi Esfahan
    • 3
  • Majid Ghorbani
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth SciencesUniversity of KashanKashanIran
  3. 3.Rangeland Research DivisionResearch Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)TehranIran

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