How Clinical Research Should Never Have Been Done: Ethical Measures for Protection and Respect
There are examples of unethical clinical research not just in Nazi Germany but in the United States, in which advances in medical knowledge were gained at the expense of individual well-being and autonomy. The Nuremberg Code was developed in 1949 after the atrocities of Nazi medical research were discovered to codify the protection of human subjects and ensure voluntary consent. After the US Tuskegee Syphilis experiment came to light, the Belmont Report in 1979 delineated the three principals of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. It also established the system of Institutional Review Boards to oversee research on a local level.
KeywordsSyphilis Gonorrhea Hepatitis A Nuremberg Code Belmont Report Autonomy Beneficence Voluntary consent
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