Advertisement

Inequalities and Access

  • A. S. Bhalla
  • Dan Luo
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter shows that while poverty has been reduced, income inequality has become worse in both China and India, which may be explained partly by very rapid economic growth during the past two decades. Non-income inequalities in the form of lack of access to education, health services and other public services have more adversely affected minorities than the majority population, which poses serious social and political problems. China has been more successful than India in ensuring access of minorities to education and health services. For example, it has practically removed child malnutrition which remains a serious problem in India.

References

  1. Balarajan, Y., Selvaraj, S., & Subramanian, S. V. (2011, February 5). Health care and equity in India. Lancet, 377, 505–515.Google Scholar
  2. Bhagwati, J., & Panagariya, A. (2013). Why growth matters. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  3. Bhalla, A. S. (1995). Uneven development in the third world: A study of China and India (2nd revised and enlarged edition). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. Bhalla, A. S., & Qiu, S. (2006). Poverty and inequality among Chinese minorities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Bhalotra, S., & Zamora, B. (2010). Social divisions in education in India. In R. Basant & A. Shariff (Eds.), Handbook of Muslims in India: Empirical and policy perspectives. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bhaumik, S. K., & Chakrabarty, M. (2010). Earnings inequality: The impact of the rise of caste-and religion-based politics. In R. Basant & A. Shariff (Eds.), Handbook of Muslims in India: Empirical and policy perspectives. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bloom, G., & Fang, J. (2003). China’s rural health system in a changing institutional context (Institute of Development Studies (IDS) Working Paper 194). Brighton: IDS.Google Scholar
  8. Borooah, V. K., Gustafsson, B., & Li, S. (2006). China and India: Income inequality and poverty north and south of the Himalayas. Journal of Asian Economics, 17(5).Google Scholar
  9. Bramall, C. (2001) The quality of China’s household income surveys. China Quarterly, 167.Google Scholar
  10. CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). (1995). Household survey 1995. Beijing: CASS.Google Scholar
  11. CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). (1988). Household survey 1988. Beijing: CASS.Google Scholar
  12. CASS (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). (2002). Household survey 2002. Beijing: CASS.Google Scholar
  13. Das, J., & Hammer, J. (2007). Money for nothing: The dire straits of medical practice in Delhi, India. Journal of Development Economics, 83(1).Google Scholar
  14. Deolalikar, A. B. (2010). The performance of Muslims on social indicators: A comparative perspective. In R. Basant & A. Shariff (Eds.), Handbook of Muslims in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Desai, S. B., Dubey, A., Joshi, B. L., Sen, M., Shariff, A., & Vanneman, R. (2010). Human development in India: Challenges for a society in transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Deshpande, S., & Yadav, Y. (2006). Redesigning affirmative action: Castes and benefits in higher education. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(24).Google Scholar
  17. Dev, S. M. (2008). Inclusive growth in India: Agriculture, poverty and human development. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Drèze, J., & Gazdar, H. (1997). Uttar Pradesh: The burden of inertia. In J. Drèze & A. Sen (Eds.), Indian development: Selected regional perspectives. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Drèze, J., & Sen, A. K. (1995). India: Economic development and social opportunity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Drèze, J., & Sen, A. (2013). An uncertain glory: India and its contradictions. London, Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  21. Fischer, A. M. (2014). The disempowered development of Tibet in China: A study in the economics of marginalization. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  22. GOC (Government of China). (2015). Report of the work of Xinjiang government. Beijing.Google Scholar
  23. GOI (Government of India). (2001). Census of India. New Delhi: Registrar General of India.Google Scholar
  24. GOI (Government of India), Cabinet Secretariat. (2006, November). Social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community in India: A report of the prime minister’s High Level Committee (chaired by Rajinder Sachar). New Delhi.Google Scholar
  25. GOI (Government of India). (2016a). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. National Sample Survey (NSSO) 71st round on health in India 2014. New Delhi: NSSO.Google Scholar
  26. GOI (Government of India). (2016b). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. National Sample Survey (NSS) 71st round on education in India 2014. Kolkata: NSSO.Google Scholar
  27. Gupta, I., & Mitra, A. (2004). Economic growth, health and poverty: An exploratory study for India. Development Policy Review, 22.Google Scholar
  28. Hammer, J., Aiyar, Y., & Samji, S. (2007). Understanding government failure in public health services. Economic and Political Weekly, 42.Google Scholar
  29. Hannum, E. (2002). Educational stratification by ethnicity in China: Enrollment and attainment in the early reform period. Demography, 39(1).Google Scholar
  30. Hasan, Z. (2009). Politics of inclusion: Castes, minorities, affirmative action. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Iredale, R., Bilik, N., & Wang, S. (2001). Contemporary minority migration, education and ethnicity in China. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  32. John, R. M., & Mutatkar, R. (2005). Statewise estimates of poverty among religious groups in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 40(13), 1337–1345.Google Scholar
  33. Khan, A. R. (2008). Growth, inequality and poverty: A comparative study of China’s experience in the periods before and after the Asian crisis. In B. Gustafsson, S. Li, & T. Sicular (Eds.), Inequality and public policy in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Khan, A. R., & Riskin, C. (2005). China’s household income and its distribution, 1995 and 2002. China Quarterly, 182.Google Scholar
  35. Knight, J., & Song, L. (1999). The rural-urban divide: Economic disparities and interactions in China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Panagariya, A., Chakraborty, P., & Rao, G. (2014). State level reforms, growth, and development in Indian states. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pyatt, G. (1976). On the interpretation and disaggregation of Gini coefficients. Economic Journal, 86(342).Google Scholar
  38. Radhakrishna, R. (2015). Well-being, inequality and poverty and pathways out of poverty in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 50(41), 59–71.Google Scholar
  39. Radhakrishna, R., & Ray, S. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of poverty in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Radhakrishna, R., Ravi, C., & Reddy, B. S. (2011). State of poverty and malnutrition in India. In M. Mohanty (Ed.), Council of Social Development, India: Social Development Report 2010. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Ramachandran, V. K. (1997). On Kerala’s development achievements. In J. Drèze & A. Sen (Eds.), Indian development: Selected regional perspectives. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Rao, C. H. H. (2011). India and China: A comparison of the role of sociopolitical factors in inclusive growth. Economic and Political Weekly, 66(16).Google Scholar
  43. Riskin, C. (1994). Chinese rural poverty: Marginalized or dispersed? American Economic Review—Papers and Proceedings, 84(2), 281–284.Google Scholar
  44. Sangay, L. (1998). Education rights for Tibetans in Tibet and India. In J. D. Montgomery (Ed.), Human rights: Positive policies in Asia and the Pacific rim. Hollis, NH: Hollis.Google Scholar
  45. Sautman, B. (1999). Expanding access to higher education for China’s national minorities: Policies for preferential admissions. In G. Postiglione (Ed.), China’s national minority education: Culture, schooling and development. New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  46. Sen, A. (2011). Quality of life: India vs. China. New York Times Review of Books, 58(8).Google Scholar
  47. Sen, G., Iyer, A., & George, A. (2002). Structural reforms and health equity: A comparison of NSS surveys, 1986–87 and 1995–96. Economic and Political Weekly, 37.Google Scholar
  48. Sengupta, S., & Gazdar, H. (1997). Agrarian politics and rural development in West Bengal. In J. Drèze & A. Sen (Eds.), Indian development: Selected regional perspectives. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Shariff, A. (1999). India Human Development Report. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Tarrozzi, A. (2008). Growth reference charts and the nutrition status of Indian children. Economics and Human Biology, 6(3).Google Scholar
  51. Thorat, S. K., & Dubey, A. (2012). Has growth been socially inclusive during 1993-94–2009-10? Economic and Political Weekly, 47(10).Google Scholar
  52. Thorat, S. K., & Sabharwal, N. (2011, February 10–12). Inter-group inequalities in malnutrition in rural India: Need for socially inclusive policies. Paper presented at the IFPRI International Conference on ‘2020 Vision: Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health’, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  53. Thorat, S. K., & Sadana, N. (2009). Discrimination and children’s nutritional status in India. Institute of Development Studies (IDS) Bulletin, 40(4).Google Scholar
  54. UNDP. (2003). Human development report. New York.Google Scholar
  55. Upton, J. L. (1999). The development of modern school-based Tibetan language education in the PRC. In G. Postiglione (Ed.), China’s national minority education. New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  56. Wiemer, C. (2004). The economy of Xinjiang. In S. F. Starr (Ed.), Xinjiang: China’s Muslim borderland. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  57. WHO (World Health Organization) and China State Council Development Research Centre (DRC). (2005). China: Health, poverty and economic development. Beijing: WHO; DRC.Google Scholar
  58. Yao, S. (1999). On the decomposition of Gini coefficients by population class and income source: A spreadsheet approach and application. Applied Economics, 31.Google Scholar
  59. Zang, X. (2015). Ethnicity in China. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  60. Zhang, T. (1989). Change in Tibetan population. Beijing: China’s Tibetan Studies Publishing House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CommugnySwitzerland
  2. 2.University of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations