Marine Co-Rich Ferromanganese Crust Deposits: Description and Formation, Occurrences and Distribution, Estimated World-wide Resources

  • Peter E. HalbachEmail author
  • Andreas Jahn
  • Georgy Cherkashov


Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts from the seafloor are gaining significance due to the presence of a variety of major, minor, and trace metals that are of strategic importance for sustained demands of the industry in future. This chapter describes the occurrence and nature, mineralogy, formation and growth, chemical composition as well as their inter-relationships. The chapter further looks at total and regional metal potentials and proposes a resource assessment model for ferromanganese crust deposits and their economic considerations.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter E. Halbach
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreas Jahn
    • 1
  • Georgy Cherkashov
    • 2
  1. 1.Freie Universitaet BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Geology and Mineral ResourcesSt. PetersburgRussia

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