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The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc

  • Gerardo Suárez
  • Angélica Muñoz
  • Isaac A. Farraz
  • Emilio Talavera
  • Virginia Tenorio
  • David A. Novelo-Casanova
  • Antonio Sánchez
Chapter
Part of the Pageoph Topical Volumes book series (PTV)

Abstract

On 10 April 2014, an Mw 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast–southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the northwest relative to the Caribbean plate at a rate of 14 mm/year. Part of the deformation is apparently accommodated by strain partitioning in the form of bookshelf faulting, on a system of orthogonal faults. The sinistral faults striking northeast–southwest rotate blocks of the Caribbean plate in a clockwise manner. The recent crustal earthquakes in central Nicaragua in 1931, 1972 and 2005 earthquakes took place on these left-lateral faults. The motion of the forearc sliver is also accommodated by a second set of right-lateral, strike-slip faults oriented parallel to the volcanic arc. Faults with this orientation and direction of motion are responsible for the 2014 and possibly the 1955 earthquakes. The presence of this geometry of orthogonal crustal faults highlights the seismic hazard posed by this complex faulting system, not only in the capital city of Managua, but also to the major Nicaraguan cities, which lie close to the volcanic arc.

Keywords

Nicaraguan tectonics crustal deformation bookshelf faulting Central American seismicity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerardo Suárez
    • 1
  • Angélica Muñoz
    • 2
  • Isaac A. Farraz
    • 3
  • Emilio Talavera
    • 2
  • Virginia Tenorio
    • 2
  • David A. Novelo-Casanova
    • 1
  • Antonio Sánchez
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto de GeofísicaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxico CityMexico
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)ManaguaNicaragua
  3. 3.Terracon Ingeniería S.A. de C.V.México CityMexico
  4. 4.Trimble Navigation Ltd.PlanoUSA

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