Changing Political Activism: Before and After the Umbrella Movement
This article analyses the evolving features of political activism in Hong Kong using qualitative and quantitative data. It argues that the changing political activism in Hong Kong is characterised by youth activism, radicalism and localism. The article traces the changes in the political identity, political attitudes and political participation of the general Hong Kong people and young people, both before and after the Umbrella Movement in the fall of 2014, and in the light of the theories of political culture and identity politics. Lastly, the article sheds light on the future development of political activism and its implications for the civil society in Hong Kong.
The author would like to thank the Path of Democracy, and the Asian Barometer Hong Kong team for sharing the survey data. The Asian Barometer (2012) was funded by the GRF 2012–2013 (HKU746812H) under the project “Political Values, Economic Evaluation and Regime Performance in Hong Kong.”
- Allen, L. Charles. 1970. Communication Patterns in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
- Asian Barometer. 2001, 2007 and 2012. Hong Kong Surveys 2001, 2007 and 2012, http://www.asianbarometer.org/
- Castells, Manuel. 2010. The Power of Identity, 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Chiu, Stephen Wing-kai, and Tai-lok Lui. 2000. The Dynamics of Social Movement in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Hoadley, J. Stephen. 1970. “‘Hong Kong is the Lifeboat’: Notes on Political Culture and Socialisation.” Journal of Oriental Studies, 8: 209–211.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Transition Project. 2010. Before the Legislature Votes: Hong Kong Attitudes Towards Constitutional Reform, http://www.hktp.org/list/before_legco_votes_on_const.pdf.
- King, Ambrose Y.C. 1981. “The Political Culture of Kwun Tong: A Chinese Community in Hong Kong,” in King, Ambrose Y.C., and Rance P.L. Lee (eds.), Social Life and Development in Hong Kong, Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, pp. 147–168.Google Scholar
- Kriesi, Hanspeter. 2004. “Political Context and Opportunity,” in David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 67–90.Google Scholar
- Lam, Wai-man. 2004. Understanding the Political Culture of Hong Kong. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
- Lam, Wai-man, and Kay Chi-yan Lam. 2010. “Civil Society and Cosmopolitanism: Identity Politics in Hong Kong,” in Roger Coates and Markus Thiel (eds.), Identity Politics in the Age of Globalization, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers (First Forum Press), pp. 57–81.Google Scholar
- Lam, Wai-man, and Kay Chi-yan Lam. 2013. “China’s United Front Work in Civil Society: The Case of Hong Kong.” International Journal of China Studies, 4(3): 301–325, http://ics.um.edu.my/images/ics/IJCSV4N3/lam&lam.pdf.
- Lam, Wai-man, Stan Hok-wui Wong, and Ma Ngok. 2013. Asian Barometer Survey III—Hong Kong Report (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
- Lau, Siu-kai. 1978. From Traditional Familism to Utilitarianistic Familism: The Metamorphosis of Familial Ethos among the Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: Social Research Centre, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
- Lau, Siu-kai. 1982. Society and Politics in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
- Lau, Siu-kai, and Hsin-chi Kuan. 1988. The Ethos of the Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
- Lau, Siu-kai, and Hsin-chi Kuan. 1995. “The Attentive Spectator: Political Participation of the Hong Kong Chinese.” Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, 14(1): 3–24.Google Scholar
- Ma, Ngok, and Kin-man Chan. 2008. The State of Democratic Governance in Hong Kong. Paper presented at “An Asian Barometer Conference on the State of Democratic Governance in Asia,” http://www.asianbarometer.org/publications//6084fcaaf19abe788e0dda45da3e33e0.pdf.
- Path of Democracy. 2016. Survey on Political Attitudes in Hong Kong (unpublished report).Google Scholar
- Public Opinion Program of the University of Hong Kong. Various years, https://www.hkupop.hku.hk/chinese/popexpress/ethnic/eidentity/halfyr/datatables.html.
- Tsang, John Chun-wah. 2015. “La Salle College and Me” (blog article). December 27.Google Scholar