Virtual Ureteroscopy of Upper Tract Urothelial Tumors

  • Angela Tong
  • Anthony GiletEmail author


Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of urinary tract pathology. Technologic advancements in computing and imaging technology have revolutionized the role in which radiology plays in the workup of patients with hematuria. CT and MR have replaced conventional intravenous pyelography (IVP) in the imaging workup for abnormalities of the urinary collecting system. Both methods have their relative advantages and disadvantages, however both can elegantly and noninvasively diagnose disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Emerging techniques, such as ‘Virtual’ Ureteroscopy with both CT and MR are going to play an expanding part in the workup of neoplastic urinary tract pathology. Utilizing dedicated 3D software, virtual ureteroscopy makes it possible to manipulate the imaging dataset obtained from CT or MR to allow for intraluminal visualization of renal collecting system, ureters, and bladder. This can provide a noninvasive way to diagnose even small lesions of the urinary tract, or offer a road map for treatment or interventions.


Radiology Computed tomography/CT Magnetic resonance imaging/MRI Virtual ureteroscopy Virtual cystoscopy 

Supplementary material

334874_1_En_5_MOESM1_ESM.wmv (1.2 mb)
Video 5.1 Right ureteral ‘fly-through’ of a volume rendered CT virtual ureteroscopy. A 0.5 mm lesion is demonstrated along the right anterolateral wall of the distal ureter (end of video, page 221 of 225). The green 3-D orientation box in the lower left hand of the screen as well as a cross-referenced line with the axial acquired imaged (not shown) provides a roadmap for the clinician (WMV 1239 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyNew York Medical College/Westchester Medical Health NetworkValhallaUSA

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