Characteristics of Semirigid and Flexible Ureteroscopes for Upper Tract Tumors
The least invasive method of accessing the upper tract and tumor originating therein that provides direct visualization and possibility of sampling and treatment is via ureteroscopy. Ureteroscopy in the lower ureters can be done with a semirigid ureteroscope and proximal to that with a flexible ureterorenoscope. In this chapter, we summarize the commonly available devices in both semirigid and flexible categories, and highlight their features and properties. A review of conventional (fiberoptic) and digital sensor flexible ureteroscopes as well as unique issues related to these devices including image quality, ease of navigation, channel sizes and irrigation properties, scope durability as well as cost issues is also included in this chapter.
KeywordsEndoscope Ureteroscope Semirigid Flexible Fiberoptics Distal sensor digital ureteroscope
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