Failure to Make the Correct Diagnosis – Part II (A Physical Therapist’s Perspective)

  • Steve KrausEmail author


The 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) has identified 14 diagnostic categories for headache and facial pain [1] (Appendix 1). Each of these categories have several diagnostic subtypes for a total of 284 sources for headache and facial pain. This extensive list of headache and facial pain disorders becomes a diagnostic challenge even for the most seasoned clinicians. A thorough history and a cranial nerve exam assessing neurological deficit(s) and/or altered mental state can eliminate more serious pathologies that may be causing headache and facial pain. If pathology or infection is suspected, imaging studies and blood analysis would rule out most concerns [2]. Neuropathic and neurogenic sources for headache and facial pain must be considered but are very complex and difficult to diagnose [3]. Category 11 of the IHS classification system addresses additional diagnoses that are relatively common and can mimic and compound temporomandibular joint pain (Boxes 2.1 and 2.2).


Neck Pain Facial Pain International Headache Society Disc Displacement Diagnostic Protocol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Rehabilitation MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.The Georgia School of OrthodonticsAtlantaUSA

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