Advertisement

Role of Endodontics in Dental Trauma

  • Scott Sutter
  • Kristine Knoll
Chapter
Part of the Textbooks in Contemporary Dentistry book series (TECD)

Abstract

Dental trauma results in damage to many hard and soft tissue structures, including the bone, root, crown, and pulp. Endodontics plays an important role in providing timely and correct treatment following trauma to ensure high success rates for these patients. Diagnosis of dental trauma is essential and complex, and the clinician should utilize multiple approaches, including a detailed dental history, radiographic examination, and clinical examination to confirm an accurate diagnosis and determine the etiological factors affecting the prognosis (refer to ► Chap.  3). Several options are available for the treatment of dental traumas, allowing the patient to maintain the esthetics and function of an intact dentition. Treatment of luxation injuries should focus on maintaining pulpal vitality while providing the periodontal attachment an environment in which all structures can heal. Crown fractures are treated differently based on the involvement of the pulp and should utilize the most recent bioceramic materials to provide the highest success rates with excellent esthetic results. Avulsion injuries require rapid and proper treatment that can make the difference between keeping a tooth functional and asymptomatic versus condemning the patient to lose the tooth with a poor long-term esthetic result. Regenerative techniques allow the clinician to either maintain or recreate the vitality of the pulp in immature teeth and are a rapidly advancing field in dental trauma. Pathologic resorption can occur following dental trauma, and appropriate treatment is essential to arrest the process.

References

  1. 1.
    Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM, Andersson L. Textbook and color atlas of traumatic injuries to the teeth. Hoboken: Wiley; 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oikarinen K. Pathogenesis and mechanism of traumatic injuries to teeth. Dent Traumatol. 1987;3(5):220–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andreasen JO, Ravn JJ. Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries to primary and permanent teeth in a Danish population sample. Int J Oral Surg. 1972;1(5):235–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Diangelis AJ, et al. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 1. Fractures and luxations of permanent teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28(1):2–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cotti E, et al. Comprehensive management of a complex traumatic dental injury. Dent Traumatol. 2014;30(5):400–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohenca N, et al. Clinical indications for digital imaging in dento-alveolar trauma. Part 1: traumatic injuries. Dent Traumatol. 2007;23(2):95–104.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gazelius B, Olgart L, Edwall B. Restored vitality in luxated teeth assessed by laser Doppler flowmeter. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1988;4(6):265–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yanpiset K, et al. Efficacy of laser Doppler flowmetry for the diagnosis of revascularization of reimplanted immature dog teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2001;17(2):63–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jarvinen S. Fractured and avulsed permanent incisors in Finnish children. A retrospective study. Acta Odontol Scand. 1979;37(1):47–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Love RM, Ponnambalam Y. Dental and maxillofacial skeletal injuries seen at the University of Otago School of Dentistry, New Zealand 2000-2004. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24(2):170–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andreasen FM, et al. Long-term survival of fragment bonding in the treatment of fractured crowns: a multicenter clinical study. Quintessence Int. 1995;26(10):669–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murray PE, et al. Remaining dentine thickness and human pulp responses. Int Endod J. 2003;36(1):33–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ersin NK, Eronat N. The comparison of a dentin adhesive with calcium hydroxide as a pulp-capping agent on the exposed pulps of human and sheep teeth. Quintessence Int. 2005;36(4):271–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Subay RK, Demirci M. Pulp tissue reactions to a dentin bonding agent as a direct capping agent. J Endod. 2005;31(3):201–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leye Benoist F, et al. Evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) versus calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal((R))) in the formation of a dentine bridge: a randomised controlled trial. Int Dent J. 2012;62(1):33–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Monea M, Monea A, Stoica A. Histological evaluation of indirect pulp capping procedures with calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate. Eur Sci J. 2014;10(24):1–10.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kotsanos N, Arizos S. Evaluation of a resin modified glass ionomer serving both as indirect pulp therapy and as restorative material for primary molars. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2011;12(3):170–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kakehashi S, Stanley H, Fitzgerald R. The effects of surgical exposures of dental pulps in germ-free and conventional laboratory rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1965;20(3):340–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cvek M, et al. Pulp reactions to exposure after experimental crown fractures or grinding in adult monkeys. J Endod. 1982;8(9):391–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katebzadeh N, Dalton BC, Trope M. Strengthening immature teeth during and after apexification. J Endod. 1998;24(4):256–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sjögren U, et al. Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment. J Endod. 1990;16(10):498–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salehrabi R, Rotstein I. Endodontic treatment outcomes in a large patient population in the USA: an epidemiological study. J Endod. 2004;30(12):846–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mente J, et al. Mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium hydroxide direct pulp capping: an analysis of the clinical treatment outcome. J Endod. 2010;36(5):806–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marques MS, Wesselink PR, Shemesh H. Outcome of direct pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate: a prospective study. J Endod. 2015;41(7):1026–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Berger T, Baratz AZ, Gutmann JL. In vitro investigations into the etiology of mineral trioxide tooth staining. J Conserv Dent. 2014;17(6):526.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hilton TJ. Keys to clinical success with pulp capping: a review of the literature. Oper Dent. 2009;34(5):615–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cvek M. A clinical report on partial pulpotomy and capping with calcium hydroxide in permanent incisors with complicated crown fracture. J Endod. 1978;4(8):232–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barrington C, Barnett F. Apexogenesis in an incompletely developed permanent tooth with pulpal exposure. Oral Health. 2003;93(2):49–56.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Granath LE, Hagman G. Experimental pulpotomy in human bicuspids with reference to cutting technique. Acta Odontol Scand. 1971;29(2):155–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mejare I, Cvek M. Partial pulpotomy in young permanent teeth with deep carious lesions. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1993;9(6):238–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andreasen FM. Pulpal healing after luxation injuries and root fracture in the permanent dentition. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1989;5(3):111–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Andreasen FM, Andreasen JO. Resorption and mineralization processes following root fracture of permanent incisors. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1988;4(5):202–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Andreasen FM, Andreasen JO, Bayer T. Prognosis of root-fractured permanent incisors—prediction of healing modalities. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1989;5(1):11–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Andreasen JO, et al. Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures. 2. Effect of treatment factors such as treatment delay, repositioning, splinting type and period and antibiotics. Dent Traumatol. 2004;20(4):203–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Andreasen JO, Hjorting-Hansen E. Intraalveolar root fractures: radiographic and histologic study of 50 cases. J Oral Surg. 1967;25(5):414–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cvek M, Mejare I, Andreasen JO. Healing and prognosis of teeth with intra-alveolar fractures involving the cervical part of the root. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(2):57–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Herweijer JA, Torabinejad M, Bakland LK. Healing of horizontal root fractures. J Endod. 1992;18(3):118–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jacobsen I, Zachrisson BU. Repair characteristics of root fractures in permanent anterior teeth. Scand J Dent Res. 1975;83(6):355–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Skiellkr V. The prognosis for young teeth loosened after mechanical injuries. Acta Odontol Scand. 1960;18(2):171–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Andreasen FM, Pedersen BV. Prognosis of luxated permanent teeth—the development of pulp necrosis. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1985;1(6):207–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Soder PO, et al. Effect of drying on viability of periodontal membrane. Scand J Dent Res. 1977;85(3):164–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Andreasen JO, Kristerson L. The effect of limited drying or removal of the periodontal ligament. Periodontal healing after replantation of mature permanent incisors in monkeys. Acta Odontol Scand. 1981;39(1):1–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Andreasen JO, Hjorting-Hansen E. Replantation of teeth. I. Radiographic and clinical study of 110 human teeth replanted after accidental loss. Acta Odontol Scand. 1966;24(3):263–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Trope M. Root resorption of dental and traumatic origin: classification based on etiology. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent. 1998;10(4):515–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ritter AL, et al. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after treatment with minocycline and doxycycline assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, radiography, and histology. Dent Traumatol. 2004;20(2):75–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Andersson L, et al. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 2. Avulsion of permanent teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28(2):88–96.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Andreasen JO. Effect of extra-alveolar period and storage media upon periodontal and pulpal healing after replantation of mature permanent incisors in monkeys. Int J Oral Surg. 1981;10(1):43–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cvek M, et al. Effect of topical application of doxycycline on pulp revascularization and periodontal healing in reimplanted monkey incisors. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1990;6(4):170–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Trope M, et al. Short vs. long-term calcium hydroxide treatment of established inflammatory root resorption in replanted dog teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1995;11(3):124–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bryson E, et al. Effect of immediate intracanal placement of Ledermix Paste® on healing of replanted dog teeth after extended dry times. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(6):316–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wigen TI, Agnalt R, Jacobsen I. Intrusive luxation of permanent incisors in Norwegians aged 6-17 years: a retrospective study of treatment and outcome. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24(6):612–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Caliskan MK, Turkun M, Gomel M. Surgical extrusion of crown-root-fractured teeth: a clinical review. Int Endod J. 1999;32(2):146–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Patel S, Kanagasingam S, Pitt Ford T. External cervical resorption: a review. J Endod. 2009;35(5):616–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Patel S, et al. Internal root resorption: a review. J Endod. 2010;36(7):1107–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Trope M. Root resorption due to dental trauma. Endod Top. 2002;1:79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wedenberg C, Zetterqvist L. Internal resorption in human teeth—a histological, scanning electron microscopic, and enzyme histochemical study. J Endod. 1987;13(6):255–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wedenberg C, Lindskog S. Experimental internal resorption in monkey teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1985;1(6):221–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Talic NF. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: a clinical perspective. Saudi Dent J. 2011;23(2):55–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bahuguna N. Cervical root resorption and non vital bleaching. Endodontology. 2013;25(2):106.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fuss Z, Tsesis I, Lin S. Root resorption—diagnosis, classification, and treatment choices based on stimulation factors. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19:175–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schwartz R. In: Schwartz R, editor. Best practices in endodontics. Hanover Park: Quintessence; 2015. p. 245–52.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tronstad L. Root resorption—etiology, terminology and clinical manifestations. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1988;4(6):241–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gartner AH, Mack T, Somerlott RG, Walsh LC. Differential diagnosis of internal and external root resorption. J Endod. 1976;2:329–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bakland LK. Root resorption. Dent Clin N Am. 1992;36:491–508.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Caliskan MK, Turkun M. Prognosis of permanent teeth with internal resorption: a clinical review. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1997;13:75–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stamos DE, Stamos DG. A new treatment modality for internal resorption. J Endod. 1986;12:315–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Goldberg F, Massone EJ, Esmoris M, Alfie D. Comparison of different techniques for obturating experimental internal resorptive cavities. Endod Dent Traumatol. 2000;16:116–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kandalgaonkar SD, et al. Invasive cervical resorption: a review. J Int Oral Health. 2013;5(6):124–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Heithersay GS. Invasive cervical resorption: an analysis of potential predisposing factors. Quintessence Int. 1999;30(2):83–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Neuvald L, Consolaro A. Cementoenamel junction: microscopic analysis and external cervical resorption. J Endod. 2000;26:503–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Umer F, Adnan S, Raza Khan F. Conservative management of invasive cervical resorption: a case report. J Dent (Tehran). 2013;10(3):289–95.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heithersay GS. Treatment of invasive cervical resorption: an analysis of results using topical application of trichloracetic acid, curettage, and restoration. Quintessence Int. 1999;30(2):96–110.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Patel S, Dawood A. The use of cone beam computed tomography in the management of external cervical resorption lesions. Int Endod J. 2007;40(9):730–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Frank AL, Torabinejad M. Diagnosis and treatment of extracanal invasive resorption. J Endod. 1998;24:500–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schwartz RS, Robbins JW, Rindler E. Management of invasive cervical resorption: observations from three private practices and a report of three cases. J Endod. 2010;36(10):1721–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Harris BT, et al. Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent. 2014;111(5):356–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Krishnan U, Moule AJ, Alawadhi A. Cone beam CT assisted re-treatment of class 3 invasive cervical resorption. BMJ Case Rep. 2015;2015:bcr2014204615.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Salzano S, Tirone F. Conservative nonsurgical treatment of class 4 invasive cervical resorption: a case series. J Endod. 2015;41(11):1907–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Finucane D, Kinirons MJ. External inflammatory and replacement resorption of luxated, and avulsed replanted permanent incisors: a review and case presentation. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19(3):170–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cohenca N, Stabholz A. Decoronation—a conservative method to treat ankylosed teeth for preservation of alveolar ridge prior to permanent prosthetic reconstruction: literature review and case presentation. Dent Traumatol. 2007;23(2):87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Buck J. Flapless decoronation for teeth with replacement resorption. In: Schwartz R, editor. Best practices in endodontics. Hanover Park: Quintessence; 2015. p. 269–72.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nolla CM. The development of permanent teeth. University of Michigan, 1952.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bastone EB, Freer TJ, McNamara JR. Epidemiology of dental trauma: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J. 2000;45(1):2–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    American Association of Endodontists. Glossary of Endodontic Terms. 7th ed. Chicago: American Association of Endodontists; 2003.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dominguez Reyes A, Munoz Munoz L, Aznar Martin T. Study of calcium hydroxide apexification in 26 young permanent incisors. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(3):141–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rafter M. Apexification: a review. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(1):1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Heling I, et al. Endodontic failure caused by inadequate restorative procedures: review and treatment recommendations. J Prosthet Dent. 2002;87(6):674–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Andreasen JO, Farik B, Munksgaard EC. Long-term calcium hydroxide as a root canal dressing may increase risk of root fracture. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(3):134–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yilmaz S, Dumani A, Yoldas O. The effect of antibiotic pastes on microhardness of dentin. Dent Traumatol. 2016;32:27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Holden DT, et al. Clinical outcomes of artificial root-end barriers with mineral trioxide aggregate in teeth with immature apices. J Endod. 2008;34(7):812–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Witherspoon DE, et al. Retrospective analysis of open apex teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod. 2008;34(10):1171–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lee BN, et al. A review of the regenerative endodontic treatment procedure. Restor Dent Endod. 2015;40(3):179–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jeeruphan T, et al. Mahidol study 1: comparison of radiographic and survival outcomes of immature teeth treated with either regenerative endodontic or apexification methods: a retrospective study. J Endod. 2012;38(10):1330–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kling M, Cvek M, Mejare I. Rate and predictability of pulp revascularization in therapeutically reimplanted permanent incisors. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1986;2(3):83–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Garcia-Godoy F, Murray PE. Recommendations for using regenerative endodontic procedures in permanent immature traumatized teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28(1):33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Laureys WG, et al. The critical apical diameter to obtain regeneration of the pulp tissue after tooth transplantation, replantation, or regenerative endodontic treatment. J Endod. 2013;39(6):759–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nosrat A, et al. Tissue engineering considerations in dental pulp regeneration. Iran Endod J. 2014;9(1):30–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Narang I, Mittal N, Mishra N. A comparative evaluation of the blood clot, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin in regeneration of necrotic immature permanent teeth: a clinical study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;6(1):63–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Saber SE. Tissue engineering in endodontics. J Oral Sci. 2009;51(4):495–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dabbagh B, et al. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2012;34(5):414–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sato I, et al. Sterilization of infected root-canal dentine by topical application of a mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline in situ. Int Endod J. 1996;29(2):118–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bose R, Nummikoski P, Hargreaves K. A retrospective evaluation of radiographic outcomes in immature teeth with necrotic root canal systems treated with regenerative endodontic procedures. J Endod. 2009;35(10):1343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Krastl G, et al. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic materials: a literature review. Dent Traumatol. 2013;29(1):2–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Utneja S, et al. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement-review of its composition, properties and applications. Restor Dent Endod. 2015;40(1):1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Sutter
    • 1
  • Kristine Knoll
    • 2
  1. 1.EndodonticsRenoUSA
  2. 2.Endodontics ProgramUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations